One God and one Lord
One God and one Lord

One God and one Lord

One God, the Father, and One Lord, Jesus Christ

A clear declaration identifying and distinguishing the one God, the Father from the one Lord, Jesus Christ is 1 Corinthians 8:4-6. Here Paul says, “there is no God but one” and when he identifies who is God, it is specifically the Father, who is the source of all things and for whom we exist. Paul further acknowledges in this passage that there are many “gods” and many “lords,” but, in a strict sense, there is one we should consider God and there is one who we should consider as Lord. God made Jesus both Lord and Christ (Acts 2:36).  In the category of “gods” it is just God the Father. In the category of “lords” it the one Lord, Jesus Christ (Jesus Lord Messiah). The one God and Father is the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ (1 Pet 1:3, 2 Cor 1:2-3).

Scriptural references are ESV (English Standard Version)

1 Corinthians 8:4-6, There is one God the Father, and one Lord Jesus Christ

“… there is no God but one.” 5 For although there may be so-called gods in heaven or on earth—as indeed there are many “gods” and many “lords”— 6 yet for us there is one God, the Father, from whom are all things and for whom we exist, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things and through whom we exist.

Acts 2:36, God has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus

36 Let all the house of Israel therefore know for certain that God has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified.”

1 Peter 1:3, Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ

3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ! According to his great mercy, he has caused us to be born again to a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead

2 Corinthians 1:2-3,  the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ

2 Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies and God of all comfort

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Biblical Map of Meaning

The core understanding of there being one God, the Father, from whom are all things and for whom we exist, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things and through whom we exist (1 Cor 8:5-6) fits perfectly in the Biblical map of meaning below. The one God and Father is the source of all things, and we exist (are a new creation) through Christ. 

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No God but one – one God the Father

Scripture, including the Jewish Shema, the affirmation of God’s singularity, affirms there is no God but one (the Father).

Scriptural references are ESV (English Standard Version)

1 Corinthians 8:4-6, There is one God the Father, and one Lord Jesus Christ

“… there is no God but one.” 5 For although there may be so-called gods in heaven or on earth—as indeed there are many “gods” and many “lords”— 6 yet for us there is one God, the Father, from whom are all things and for whom we exist, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things and through whom we exist.

Deuteronomy 6:4-5, The LORD (YHWH) your God, the LORD (YHWH) is one

4 “Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God, the LORD is one. 5 You shall love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your might.

Mark 12:29-30, The LORD (YHWH) your God, the LORD (YHWH) is one

29 Jesus answered, “The most important is, ​‘Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one. 30 And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all your strength.’

John 17:1-3, “Father… you the only true God”

1 When Jesus had spoken these words, he lifted up his eyes to heaven, and said, “Father, the hour has come; glorify your Son that the Son may glorify you, 2 since you have given him authority over all flesh, to give eternal life to all whom you have given him. 3 And this is eternal life, that they know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent.

Ephesians 4:6, one God and Father of all, who is over all and through all and in all

6 one God and Father of all, who is over all and through all and in all

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God is the God and Father of the Lord Jesus

These verses indicate a distinction between the one God, the Father, and the one Lord, Jesus Christ. Jesus referred to God as his God and the Father as his Father. God is the God and Father of Jesus.

Scriptural references are ESV (English Standard Version)

John 8:54, “it is my Father who glorifies me”

54 Jesus answered, “If I glorify myself, my glory is nothing. It is my Father who glorifies me, of whom you say, ‘He is our God.’

John 10:17, “For this reason the Father loves me”

17 For this reason the Father loves me, because I lay down my life that I may take it up again.

John 10:29, “My Father is greater than all”

29 My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all, and no one is able to snatch them out of the Father’s hand.

John 14:28, “the Father is greater than I

28 You heard me say to you, ​‘I am going away, and I will come to you.’ If you loved me, you would have rejoiced, because I am going to the Father, for the Father is greater than I.

John 17:1-3, you the only true God and Jesus Christ whom he has sent

1 When Jesus had spoken these words, he lifted up his eyes to heaven, and said, “Father, the hour has come; glorify your Son that the Son may glorify you, 2 since you have given him authority over all flesh, to give eternal life to all whom you have given him. 3 And this is eternal life, that they know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent.

John 20:17, “I ascend to my God and your God”

17 Jesus said to her, “Do not cling to me, for I have not yet ascended to the Father; but go to my brothers and say to them, ​‘I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.’”

1 Corinthians 11:3, the head of Christ is God

3 But I want you to understand that the head of every man is Christ, the head of a wife is her husband, and the head of Christ is God.

2 Corinthians 1:2-3,  the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ

2 Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.  3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies and God of all comfort

Colossians 1:3, God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ

3 We always thank God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, when we pray for you

1 Peter 1:3, Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ

3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ! According to his great mercy, he has caused us to be born again to a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead

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There is one God the Father, from whom are all things and for whom we exist

Scripture affirms there is no God but one and that this one God is the Father from whom are all things and for whom we exist. 

1 Corinthians 8:4-6 (ESV), There is one God the Father, and one Lord Jesus Christ

“… there is no God but one.” 5 For although there may be so-called gods in heaven or on earth—as indeed there are many “gods” and many “lords”— 6 yet for us there is one God, the Father, from whom are all things and for whom we exist, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things and through whom we exist.

Proverbs 3:19 (LSV), YHWH founded the earth by wisdom

YHWH founded the earth by wisdom, || He prepared the heavens by understanding.

Psalms 33:6 (LSV), By the word of YHWH and the breath of His mouth

By the word of YHWH || The heavens have been made, || And all their host by the breath of His mouth.

Psalms 110:30-33 (LSV), God creates by His Spirit, YHWH rejoices in His works

You send out Your Spirit, they are created, || And You renew the face of the ground. The glory of YHWH is for all time, || YHWH rejoices in His works, Who is looking to earth, and it trembles, || He comes against hills, and they smoke. I sing to YHWH during my life, || I sing praise to my God while I exist.

Luke 1:30-35 (ESV), Jesus also created by God

30 And the angel said to her, “Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God. 31 And behold, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus. 32 He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. And the Lord God will give to him the throne of his father David, 33 and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end.” 34 And Mary said to the angel, “How will this be, since I am a virgin?” 35 And the angel answered her, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore the child to be born will be called holy—the Son of God.

John 1:1-4, 14 (Geneva 1599), All things (including Christ) are a product of God’s Word (Logos)

1 In the beginning was the Word, and the word was with God, and that Word was God. 2 the same was in the beginning with God. 3 All things were made by it, and without it was made nothing that was made. 4 In it was life and the life was the light of men… 14 And that Word was made flesh and dwelt among us (and we saw the glory thereof, as the glory of the only begotten Son of the Father) full of  grace and truth.

  • Word (Logos) can be understood as the spoken-wisdom of God pertaining to God’s wisdom, understanding, thoughts, reasoning, plan purpose, logic, intentions, etc.
  • Most English translations are biased to mislead the reader to presume the Word is a pre-incarnate Christ. Geneva is a better translation but also has some issues. 
  • The Word being made flesh = God speaking Jesus into existence according to his wisdom
  • To get a better grasp on the Prologue of John see https://undertandinglogos.com – Understanding the true meaning of the logos in the prologue to John. 

Acts 3:26 (ESV), God raised up his servant

26 God, having raised up his servant, sent him to you first, to bless you by turning every one of you from your wickedness.”

Galatians 4:4-5 (ESV), God sent forth his Son, born of a woman

4 But when the fullness of time had come, God sent forth his Son, born of woman, born under the law, 5 to redeem those who were under the law, so that we might receive adoption as sons.

Romans 5:14-21 (ESV), Jesus is a type of Adam (direct creation of God)

14 Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those whose sinning was not like the transgression of Adam, who was a type of the one who was to come.

1 Corinthians 15:45 (ESV), Jesus is the Last Adam (direct creation of God)

45 Thus it is written, “The first man Adam became a living being”; the last Adam became a life-giving spirit.

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God made Jesus both Lord and Christ

One of the principal things the  Apostles preached in Acts is that God made Jesus Lord and Christ (Acts 2:36). This is in reference to the resurrection (Acts 2:24-32) and exaltation to God’s right hand (Acts 2:33-35). This is what is taught by the Apostles throughout the book of Acts and is expressed clearly in Philippians 2:8-11, Ephesians 1:17-23, and in Revelation 12:10 and Revelation 20:6. Jesus is now considered Lord Messiah (Anointed) by virtue of the power and authority God has given to him. 

Scriptural references are ESV (English Standard Version)

Acts 2:36, God has made him both Lord and Christ

36 Let all the house of Israel therefore know for certain that God has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified.”

Acts 3:13, God glorified his servant Jesus

13 The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, the God of our fathers, glorified his servant Jesus, whom you delivered over and denied in the presence of Pilate, when he had decided to release him.

Acts 3:18, God foretold that his Christ would suffer

18 But what God foretold by the mouth of all the prophets, that his Christ would suffer, he thus fulfilled.

Acts 4:26, against the Lord and against his Anointed (Christ)

26 The kings of the earth set themselves,  and the rulers were gathered together, against the Lord and against his Anointed’—

Acts 5:30-31, God exalted him at his right hand as Leader and Savior

30 The God of our fathers raised Jesus, whom you killed by hanging him on a tree. 31 God exalted him at his right hand as Leader and Savior, to give repentance to Israel and forgiveness of sins.”

Acts 17:30-31, God will judge the world in righteousness by a man whom he has appointed

30 The times of ignorance God overlooked, but now he commands all people everywhere to repent, 31 because he has fixed a day on which he will judge the world in righteousness by a man whom he has appointed; and of this he has given assurance to all by raising him from the dead.”

Philippians 2:8-11, God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him

8 And being found in human form, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross. 9 Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him the name that is above every name, 10 so that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, 11 and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.

Ephesians 1:17-23, God seated him at his right hand in the heavenly places

17 that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give you the Spirit of wisdom and of revelation in the knowledge of him, 18 having the eyes of your hearts enlightened, that you may know what is the hope to which he has called you, what are the riches of his glorious inheritance in the saints, 19 and what is the immeasurable greatness of his power toward us who believe, according to the working of his great might 20 that he worked in Christ when he raised him from the dead and seated him at his right hand in the heavenly places, 21 far above all rule and authority and power and dominion, and above every name that is named, not only in this age but also in the one to come. 22 And he put all things under his feet and gave him as head over all things to the church, 23 which is his body, the fullness of him who fills all in all.

Revelation 12:10, kingdom of our God and the authority of his Christ

10 And I heard a loud voice in heaven, saying, “Now the salvation and the power and the kingdom of our God and the authority of his Christ have come, for the accuser of our brothers has been thrown down, who accuses them day and night before our God.

Revelation 20:6, Priests of God and of Christ

6 Blessed and holy is the one who shares in the first resurrection! Over such the second death has no power, but they will be priests of God and of Christ, and they will reign with him for a thousand years.

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Jesus is a servant (agent) of God 

Throughout the New Testament, Jesus identifies himself as and is identified by others as an agent of God. 

Scriptural references are ESV (English Standard Version)

Matthew 12:18, Behold my servant whom I have chosen

 18 “Behold, my servant whom I have chosen, my beloved with whom my soul is well pleased. I will put my Spirit upon him, and he will proclaim justice to the Gentiles.

Luke 4:16-21, “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me”

And he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. And as was his custom, he went to the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and he stood up to read. 17 And the scroll of the prophet Isaiah was given to him. He unrolled the scroll and found the place where it was written, 18The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim liberty to the captives and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty those who are oppressed, 19 to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor.” 20 And he rolled up the scroll and gave it back to the attendant and sat down. And the eyes of all in the synagogue were fixed on him. 21 And he began to say to them, “Today this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing.”

John 4:34, “My food is to do the will of him who sent me”

34 Jesus said to them, “My food is to do the will of him who sent me and to accomplish his work.

John 5:30, “I seek not my own will but the will of him who sent me”

30 “I can do nothing on my own. As I hear, I judge, and my judgment is just, because I seek not my own will but the will of him who sent me.

John 7:16-18, “My teaching is not mine, but his who sent me.”

16 So Jesus answered them, “My teaching is not mine, but his who sent me. 17 If anyone’s will is to do God’s will, he will know whether the teaching is from God or whether I am speaking on my own authority. 18 The one who speaks on his own authority seeks his own glory; but the one who seeks the glory of him who sent him is true, and in him there is no falsehood.

John 8:26-29, Jesus spoke as the Father taught him

6 I have much to say about you and much to judge, but he who sent me is true, and I declare to the world what I have heard from him.” 27 They did not understand that he had been speaking to them about the Father. 28 So Jesus said to them, “When you have lifted up the Son of Man, then you will know that I am he, and that I do nothing on my own authority, but speak just as the Father taught me. 29 And he who sent me is with me. He has not left me alone, for I always do the things that are pleasing to him.”

John 8:40,  “me, a man who has told you the truth that I heard from God”

40 but now you seek to kill me, a man who has told you the truth that I heard from God. This is not what Abraham did.

John 12:49-50, The who sent him has given him a  commandment – what to say and what to speak

49 For I have not spoken on my own authority, but the Father who sent me has himself given me a commandment—what to say and what to speak. 50 And I know that his commandment is eternal life. What I say, therefore, I say as the Father has told me.”

John 14:24, “The word that you hear is not mine but the Father’s”

24 Whoever does not love me does not keep my words. And the word that you hear is not mine but the Father’s who sent me.

John 15:10, I have kept my Father’s commandments and abide in his love

10 If you keep my commandments, you will abide in my love, just as I have kept my Father’s commandments and abide in his love.

Acts 2:22-24, A man delivered up according to the plan and foreknowledge of God

22 “Men of Israel, hear these words: Jesus of Nazareth, a man attested to you by God with mighty works and wonders and signs that God did through him in your midst, as you yourselves know— 23 this Jesus, delivered up according to the definite plan and foreknowledge of God, you crucified and killed by the hands of lawless men. 24 God raised him up, loosing the pangs of death, because it was not possible for him to be held by it.

Acts 3:26, God raised up his servant

26 God, having raised up his servant, sent him to you first, to bless you by turning every one of you from your wickedness.”

Acts 4:24-30, Believers prayer

24 … they lifted their voices together to God and said, “Sovereign Lord, who made the heaven and the earth and the sea and everything in them, 25 who through the mouth of our father David, your servant, said by the Holy Spirit, “‘Why did the Gentiles rage, and the peoples plot in vain? 26 The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers were gathered together, against the Lord and against his Anointed’— 27 for truly in this city there were gathered together against your holy servant Jesus, whom you anointed, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, along with the Gentiles and the peoples of Israel, 28 to do whatever your hand and your plan had predestined to take place. 29 And now, Lord, look upon their threats and grant to your servants to continue to speak your word with all boldness, 30 while you stretch out your hand to heal, and signs and wonders are performed through the name of your holy servant Jesus.”

Acts 10:37-43, He is the one appointed by God to Judge

37 you yourselves know what happened throughout all Judea, beginning from Galilee after the baptism that John proclaimed: 38 how God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and with power. He went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil, for God was with him39 And we are witnesses of all that he did both in the country of the Jews and in Jerusalem. They put him to death by hanging him on a tree, 40 but God raised him on the third day and made him to appear, 41 not to all the people but to us who had been chosen by God as witnesses, who ate and drank with him after he rose from the dead. 42 And he commanded us to preach to the people and to testify that he is the one appointed by God to be judge of the living and the dead. 43 To him all the prophets bear witness that everyone who believes in him receives forgiveness of sins through his name.”

Galatians 1:3-5, Jesus gave himself according to the will of God the Father

3 Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ, 4 who gave himself for our sins to deliver us from the present evil age, according to the will of our God and Father, 5 to whom be the glory forever and ever. Amen.

Philippians 2:8-11, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to death

8 And being found in human form, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross. 9 Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him the name that is above every name, 10 so that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, 11 and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.

1 Timothy 2:5-6, There is one God and one mediator

5 For there is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, 6 who gave himself as a ransom for all, which is the testimony given at the proper time.

1 Peter 2:23, he entrusted himself to him who judges justly

23 When he was reviled, he did not revile in return; when he suffered, he did not threaten, but continued entrusting himself to him who judges justly.

Hebrews 4:15-5:6, Every high priest  appointed to act on behalf of men in relation to God

15 For we do not have a high priest who is unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but one who in every respect has been tempted as we are, yet without sin. 16 Let us then with confidence draw near to the throne of grace, that we may receive mercy and find grace to help in time of need. 5:1 For every high priest chosen from among men is appointed to act on behalf of men in relation to God, to offer gifts and sacrifices for sins. 2 He can deal gently with the ignorant and wayward, since he himself is beset with weakness. 3 Because of this he is obligated to offer sacrifice for his own sins just as he does for those of the people. 4 And no one takes this honor for himself, but only when called by God, just as Aaron was. 5 So also Christ did not exalt himself to be made a high priest, but was appointed by him who said to him, “You are my Son, today I have begotten you”; 6 as he says also in another place, “You are a priest forever, after the order of Melchizedek.”

Hebrews 5:8-10, Jesus has been designated by God a high priest

Although he was a son, he learned obedience through what he suffered. 9 And being made perfect, he became the source of eternal salvation to all who obey him, 10 being designated by God a high priest after the order of Melchizedek.

Hebrews 9:24, Christ entered heaven to appear in the presence of God

24 For Christ has entered, not into holy places made with hands, which are copies of the true things, but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God on our behalf.

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There is one Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things and through whom we exist

The last part of of 1 Corinthians 8:6, says there is “one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things and through whom we exist.” Numerous Scriptural references are provided in the ESV to attest in what sense we exist through Christ. God created this world with the foreknowledge of Christ who was to come (Eph 3:9-11). We exist through Christ in the sense that he gave himself for our sins to deliver us from the present evil age (Gal 1:3-4). The wisdom of God is Christ crucified (1 Cor 1:21-25). We are saved by him from the wrath of God. The manifold wisdom of God is the eternal purpose that he has realized in Christ Jesus our Lord (Eph 3:9-11).

Scriptural references are ESV (English Standard Version)

1 Corinthians 8:4-6, There is one God the Father, and one Lord Jesus Christ

“… there is no God but one.” 5 For although there may be so-called gods in heaven or on earth—as indeed there are many “gods” and many “lords”— 6 yet for us there is one God, the Father, from whom are all things and for whom we exist, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things and through whom we exist.

  • Verse 6 provides clarification that the one God and Father is the creator (source) and that the one Lord Jesus Christ is the motivation for creation and agent of salvation (through whom are all things and through whom we exist). The following verses attest to what sense that there is one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things and through whom we exist.

Luke 1:30-33, He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end

30 And the angel said to her, “Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God. 31 And behold, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus. 32 He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. And the Lord God will give to him the throne of his father David, 33 and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end.

Luke 22:19-20, The new covenant established in his blood

19 And he took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body, which is given for you. Do this in remembrance of me.” 20 And likewise the cup after they had eaten, saying, “This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood.

Luke 24:44-48, Repentance for the forgiveness of sins should be proclaimed in his name to all nations

44 Then he said to them, “These are my words that I spoke to you while I was still with you, that everything written about me in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms must be fulfilled.” 45 Then he opened their minds to understand the Scriptures, 46 and said to them, “Thus it is written, that the Christ should suffer and on the third day rise from the dead, 47 and that repentance for the forgiveness of sins should be proclaimed in his name to all nations, beginning from Jerusalem.

Acts 3:17-21, Jesus is the Christ appointed for you

17 “And now, brothers, I know that you acted in ignorance, as did also your rulers. 18 But what God foretold by the mouth of all the prophets, that his Christ would suffer, he thus fulfilled. 19 Repent therefore, and turn back, that your sins may be blotted out, 20 that times of refreshing may come from the presence of the Lord, and that he may send the Christ appointed for you, Jesus, 21 whom heaven must receive until the time for restoring all the things about which God spoke by the mouth of his holy prophets long ago.

Acts 4:1-2, In Jesus the resurrection from the dead

1 And as they were speaking to the people, the priests and the captain of the temple and the Sadducees came upon them, 2 greatly annoyed because they were teaching the people and proclaiming in Jesus the resurrection from the dead.

Acts 4:11-12, There is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved

11 This Jesus is the stone that was rejected by you, the builders, which has become the cornerstone. 12 And there is salvation in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved.”

Acts 10:42-43, He is the one appointed by God to be judge of the living and the dead

42 And he commanded us to preach to the people and to testify that he is the one appointed by God to be judge of the living and the dead. 43 To him all the prophets bear witness that everyone who believes in him receives forgiveness of sins through his name.”

Acts 17:30-31, God will judge the world in righteousness by a man whom he has appointed

30 The times of ignorance God overlooked, but now he commands all people everywhere to repent, 31 because he has fixed a day on which he will judge the world in righteousness by a man whom he has appointed; and of this he has given assurance to all by raising him from the dead.”

John 3:14-17, That whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life

14 And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, so must the Son of Man be lifted up, 15 that whoever believes in him may have eternal life.16 “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life. 17 For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but in order that the world might be saved through him.

John 3:35-36, The Father has given all things into his hand

35 The Father loves the Son and has given all things into his hand. 36 Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life; whoever does not obey the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God remains on him.

John 5:21-29, God has given him authority to execute judgement, because he is the Son of Man

21 For as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, so also the Son gives life to whom he will. 22 For the Father judges no one, but has given all judgment to the Son, 23 that all may honor the Son, just as they honor the Father. Whoever does not honor the Son does not honor the Father who sent him. 24 Truly, truly, I say to you, whoever hears my word and believes him who sent me has eternal life. He does not come into judgment, but has passed from death to life. 25 “Truly, truly, I say to you, an hour is coming, and is now here, when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear will live. 26 For as the Father has life in himself, so he has granted the Son also to have life in himself. 27 And he has given him authority to execute judgment, because he is the Son of Man. 28 Do not marvel at this, for an hour is coming when all who are in the tombs will hear his voice 29 and come out, those who have done good to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil to the resurrection of judgment.

John 6:35-38, “I am the bread of life”

35 Jesus said to them, “I am the bread of life; whoever comes to me shall not hunger, and whoever believes in me shall never thirst. 36 But I said to you that you have seen me and yet do not believe. 37 All that the Father gives me will come to me, and whoever comes to me I will never cast out.

John 14:6, “No one comes to the Father except through me”

6 Jesus said to him, “I am the way, and the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.

John 15:1-6, “I am the true vine, and my father is the vine dresser”

1 “I am the true vine, and my Father is the vinedresser. 2 Every branch in me that does not bear fruit he takes away, and every branch that does bear fruit he prunes, that it may bear more fruit. 3 Already you are clean because of the word that I have spoken to you. 4 Abide in me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit by itself, unless it abides in the vine, neither can you, unless you abide in me. 5 I am the vine; you are the branches. Whoever abides in me and I in him, he it is that bears much fruit, for apart from me you can do nothing. 6 If anyone does not abide in me he is thrown away like a branch and withers; and the branches are gathered, thrown into the fire, and burned.

John 17:1-3, You have given him authority over all flesh, to give eternal life to all whom you have given him

1 When Jesus had spoken these words, he lifted up his eyes to heaven, and said, “Father, the hour has come; glorify your Son that the Son may glorify you, 2 since you have given him authority over all flesh, to give eternal life to all whom you have given him. 3 And this is eternal life, that they know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent.”

Galatians 1:3-5, Jesus gave himself for our sins to deliver us from the present evil age

3 Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ, 4 who gave himself for our sins to deliver us from the present evil age, according to the will of our God and Father, 5 to whom be the glory forever and ever. Amen.

1 Corinthians 1:21-25, The wisdom of God is Christ crucified

21 For since, in the wisdom of God, the world did not know God through wisdom, it pleased God through the folly of what we preach to save those who believe. 22 For Jews demand signs and Greeks seek wisdom, 23 but we preach Christ crucified, a stumbling block to Jews and folly to Gentiles, 24 but to those who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God. 25 For the foolishness of God is wiser than men, and the weakness of God is stronger than men.

1 Corinthians 15:20-25, As in Adam all die, so also in Christ shall all be made alive. 

20 But in fact Christ has been raised from the dead, the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep. 21 For as by a man came death, by a man has come also the resurrection of the dead. 22 For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ shall all be made alive. 23 But each in his own order: Christ the firstfruits, then at his coming those who belong to Christ. 24 Then comes the end, when he delivers the kingdom to God the Father after destroying every rule and every authority and power. 25 For he must reign until he has put all his enemies under his feet.

2 Corinthians 5:10, We must all appear  before the judgement seat of Christ

10 For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, so that each one may receive what is due for what he has done in the body, whether good or evil.

2 Corinthians 5:17-19, If anyone is in Christ , he is a new creation

17 Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation. The old has passed away; behold, the new has come. 18 All this is from God, who through Christ reconciled us to himself and gave us the ministry of reconciliation; 19 that is, in Christ God was reconciling the world to himself, not counting their trespasses against them, and entrusting to us the message of reconciliation.

Romans 5:8-10, We are saved by Christ from the wrath of God, reconciled by the death of his Son

8 but God shows his love for us in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us. 9 Since, therefore, we have now been justified by his blood, much more shall we be saved by him from the wrath of God. 10 For if while we were enemies we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more, now that we are reconciled, shall we be saved by his life.

Romans 6:3-11, Just as Christ was raised from the dead, we too might walk in newness of  life

3 Do you not know that all of us who have been baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? 4 We were buried therefore with him by baptism into death, in order that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, we too might walk in newness of life. 5 For if we have been united with him in a death like his, we shall certainly be united with him in a resurrection like his. 6 We know that our old self was crucified with him in order that the body of sin might be brought to nothing, so that we would no longer be enslaved to sin. 7 For one who has died has been set free from sin. 8 Now if we have died with Christ, we believe that we will also live with him. 9 We know that Christ, being raised from the dead, will never die again; death no longer has dominion over him. 10 For the death he died he died to sin, once for all, but the life he lives he lives to God. 11 So you also must consider yourselves dead to sin and alive to God in Christ Jesus.

Philippians 2:8-11, God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him  the name above every name

8 And being found in human form, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross. 9 Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him the name that is above every name, 10 so that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, 11 and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.

Ephesians 1:17-23,  And he put all things under his feet

17 that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give you the Spirit of wisdom and of revelation in the knowledge of him, 18 having the eyes of your hearts enlightened, that you may know what is the hope to which he has called you, what are the riches of his glorious inheritance in the saints, 19 and what is the immeasurable greatness of his power toward us who believe, according to the working of his great might 20 that he worked in Christ when he raised him from the dead and seated him at his right hand in the heavenly places, 21 far above all rule and authority and power and dominion, and above every name that is named, not only in this age but also in the one to come. 22 And he put all things under his feet and gave him as head over all things to the church, 23 which is his body, the fullness of him who fills all in all.

Ephesians 3:9-11, The  manifold wisdom of God is the eternal purpose that he has realized in Christ Jesus our Lord

9 and to bring to light for everyone what is the plan of the mystery hidden for ages in God, who created all things, 10 so that through the church the manifold wisdom of God might now be made known to the rulers and authorities in the heavenly places. 11 This was according to the eternal purpose that he has realized in Christ Jesus our Lord,

Colossians 1:12-14, in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins.

12 giving thanks to the Father, who has qualified you to share in the inheritance of the saints in light. 13 He has delivered us from the domain of darkness and transferred us to the kingdom of his beloved Son, 14 in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins.

Colossians 1:18-23, Through him to reconcile all things – making peace by the blood of his cross

8 And he is the head of the body, the church. He is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, that in everything he might be preeminent. 19 For in him all the fullness of God was pleased to dwell, 20 and through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether on earth or in heaven, making peace by the blood of his cross. 21 And you, who once were alienated and hostile in mind, doing evil deeds, 22 he has now reconciled in his body of flesh by his death, in order to present you holy and blameless and above reproach before him, 23 if indeed you continue in the faith, stable and steadfast, not shifting from the hope of the gospel that you heard, which has been proclaimed in all creation under heaven, and of which I, Paul, became a minister.

1 Timothy 2:5-6, There is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus

5 For there is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, 6 who gave himself as a ransom for all, which is the testimony given at the proper time.

Hebrews 1:1-4, Having become as much superior to angels

1 Long ago, at many times and in many ways, God spoke to our fathers by the prophets, 2 but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed the heir of all things, through whom also he created the world. 3 He is the radiance of the glory of God and the exact imprint of his nature, and he upholds the universe by the word of his power. After making purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high, 4 having become as much superior to angels as the name he has inherited is more excellent than theirs. 5 For to which of the angels did God ever say, “You are my Son, today I have begotten you”? Or again, “I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son”?

Hebrews 2:5-11, It was not to angels that God subjected the world to come, of which we are speaking

5 For it was not to angels that God subjected the world to come, of which we are speaking. 6 It has been testified somewhere, “What is man, that you are mindful of him, or the son of man, that you care for him? 7 You made him for a little while lower than the angels; you have crowned him with glory and honor, 8 putting everything in subjection under his feet.” Now in putting everything in subjection to him, he left nothing outside his control. At present, we do not yet see everything in subjection to him. 9 But we see him who for a little while was made lower than the angels, namely Jesus, crowned with glory and honor because of the suffering of death, so that by the grace of God he might taste death for everyone. 10 For it was fitting that he, for whom and by whom all things exist, in bringing many sons to glory, should make the founder of their salvation perfect through suffering. 11 For he who sanctifies and those who are sanctified all have one source. That is why he is not ashamed to call them brothers

Hebrews 5:5-10, He became the source of eternal salvation to all who obey him

5 So also Christ did not exalt himself to be made a high priest, but was appointed by him who said to him, “You are my Son, today I have begotten you”; 6 as he says also in another place, “You are a priest forever, after the order of Melchizedek.” 7 In the days of his flesh, Jesus offered up prayers and supplications, with loud cries and tears, to him who was able to save him from death, and he was heard because of his reverence. 8 Although he was a son, he learned obedience through what he suffered. 9 And being made perfect, he became the source of eternal salvation to all who obey him, 10 being designated by God a high priest after the order of Melchizedek.

Hebrews 9:15, He is the mediator of a new covenant

15 Therefore he is the mediator of a new covenant, so that those who are called may receive the promised eternal inheritance, since a death has occurred that redeems them from the transgressions committed under the first covenant.

Hebrews 9:24-28, Christ has entered into heaven itself to appear in the presence of God  on our behalf

24 For Christ has entered, not into holy places made with hands, which are copies of the true things, but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God on our behalf. 25 Nor was it to offer himself repeatedly, as the high priest enters the holy places every year with blood not his own, 26 for then he would have had to suffer repeatedly since the foundation of the world. But as it is, he has appeared once for all at the end of the ages to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. 27 And just as it is appointed for man to die once, and after that comes judgment, 28 so Christ, having been offered once to bear the sins of many, will appear a second time, not to deal with sin but to save those who are eagerly waiting for him.

Hebrews 10:19-23, We have a great priest over the house of God

19 Therefore, brothers, since we have confidence to enter the holy places by the blood of Jesus, 20 by the new and living way that he opened for us through the curtain, that is, through his flesh, 21 and since we have a great priest over the house of God, 22 let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, with our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water. 23 Let us hold fast the confession of our hope without wavering, for he who promised is faithful.

Hebrews 12:1-2, He endured the cross and is seated at the right hand of the throne of God

1 Therefore, since we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, let us also lay aside every weight, and sin which clings so closely, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us, 2 looking to Jesus, the founder and perfecter of our faith, who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is seated at the right hand of the throne of God.

1 Peter 3:21-22, Angels, authorities, and powers having been subjected to him

21 Baptism, which corresponds to this, now saves you, not as a removal of dirt from the body but as an appeal to God for a good conscience, through the resurrection of Jesus Christ, 22 who has gone into heaven and is at the right hand of God, with angels, authorities, and powers having been subjected to him.

Revelation 1:5-6, Jesus freed us from our sins by his blood and made us priests to his God and Father

5 and from Jesus Christ the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of kings on earth. To him who loves us and has freed us from our sins by his blood 6 and made us a kingdom, priests to his God and Father, to him be glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen.

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What about Psalms 110? Are there not two Lords?

Psalms 110:1 ” is cited in several places in the New Testament including Matthew 22:44, Mark 12:36, Luke 20:42, Acts 2:34 and Hebrews 1:13.  This phrase the “LORD says to my Lord” seems to designate there are two Lords. However, Psalms 110 pertains to what YHWH says to the human Messiah.

Psalms 110:1-4 (ESV), The LORD says to my Lord

1 The LORD says to my Lord: “Sit at my right hand, until I make your enemies your footstool.” 2 The LORD sends forth from Zion your mighty scepter. Rule in the midst of your enemies! 3 Your people will offer themselves freely on the day of your power, in holy garments; from the womb of the morning, the dew of your youth will be yours. 4 The LORD has sworn and will not change his mind, “You are a priest forever after the order of Melchizedek.”

Psalms 110:1-4 (LSV), YHWH to my Lord

A declaration of YHWH to my Lord: “Sit at My right hand, || Until I make Your enemies Your footstool.” YHWH sends the rod of Your strength from Zion, || Rule in the midst of Your enemies. Your people [are] free-will gifts in the day of Your strength, in the honors of holiness, || From the womb, from the morning, || You have the dew of Your youth. YHWH has sworn, and does not relent, “You [are] a priest for all time, || According to the order of Melchizedek.”

In our English Bibles, the same word “lord” translates several distinct Hebrew words. A long established “translators’ convention” uses different combinations of upper and lower case letters (“LORD,” “Lord,” and “lord”) to differentiate between the original Hebrew words. When we see “Lord” written with an upper case “L,” those of us who don’t read Hebrew rely on the established convention that it is, most often, a translation of “Adonai.” The problem is that in this verse the original Hebrew word is not “adonai” but rather “adoni,” In the Hebrew there is a difference in the words translated “LORD and Lord” in these two cases. Young Concordance lists eleven Hebrew words which are translated “lord.” The four which concern us here are as follows:

  • YHWH – (Yahweh or Jehovah) This word is the first “LORD” in Psalm 110:1. It is the Divine Name considered so sacred by the Jews that it is never pronounced. Instead when reading from the Scriptures they substitute the word “Adonai.” The accepted convention is that in English translations it always appears as either LORD, or GOD (all upper case) thus enabling us to recognize that the original word is “Yahweh.”
  • ADON – This word is formed from the Hebrew consonants Aleph, Dalet, Nun. It appears often in this form (without any suffix). Apart from about 30 occasions where it refers to the Divine Lord, all of the other occurrences refer to human lords.
  • ADONAIIn its main form, it always refers to God, and no one else. The accepted “translators’ convention” is that in this form, it always appears in English as “Lord” (with an upper case “L”)
  • ADONI This is formed by adding the suffix “i” to “adon.” With this suffix it means “my lord.” (It is also sometimes translated as “master.”) It appears 195 times, and is used almost entirely of human lords (but occasionally of angels). When translated “lord,” it always appears with a lower case “l” (except for that one time in Psalm 110:1) A pdf list of the 195 occurrences of adoni in 163 verses is here: https://focusonthekingdom.org/adoni.pdf?x49874
  •  

the actual Hebrew word used for “Lord” in reference to Jesus, “The LORD said to my Lord” is ADONI. This word refers to human lords. It speaks of the HUMANITY of Jesus — not Deity. In the Greek the word kyrios is used in both instances. Kyrios, translated “lord” is a  generic term meaning master and is not a term used only for God. We know that there many “lords,” but in terms of our faith Jesus is the one Lord through which we receive salvation. Jesus is our provision from our one God and Father, who is the source of all things and for whom we exist (1 Cor 8:5-6).

In the context of Psalms 110:1-4 we see that the Lord (adoni) is made a priest forever after the order of Melchizedek. This is also an important clue. High priests are agents of God who are selected from men. Hebrews 5 Makes a direct connection with Psalms 110:

Hebrews 5:1-10 (ESV), Christ was appointed by him who said to him, “You are a priest forever”

1 For every high priest chosen from among men is appointed to act on behalf of men in relation to God, to offer gifts and sacrifices for sins. 2 He can deal gently with the ignorant and wayward, since he himself is beset with weakness. 3 Because of this he is obligated to offer sacrifice for his own sins just as he does for those of the people. 4 And no one takes this honor for himself, but only when called by God, just as Aaron was. 5 So also Christ did not exalt himself to be made a high priest, but was appointed by him who said to him, “You are my Son, today I have begotten you”; 6 as he says also in another place, “You are a priest forever, after the order of Melchizedek.” 7 In the days of his flesh, Jesus offered up prayers and supplications, with loud cries and tears, to him who was able to save him from death, and he was heard because of his reverence. 8 Although he was a son, he learned obedience through what he suffered. 9 And being made perfect, he became the source of eternal salvation to all who obey him, 10 being designated by God a high priest after the order of Melchizedek.

James Dunn, The Christ and the Spirit, Volume 1: Christology, 315-344, p. 337

For Paul the kyrios title functions most often as a way of distinguishing Christ from the one God. This we see clearly in the repeated phrase “the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ” (Rom. 15:6; 2 Cor. 1:3, 11:31; Eph. 1:3, 17; Col. 1:3); also in 1 Cor. 8:6,where Christ is professed as one Lord alongside the Shema’s profession of the one God; and most notably in 1 Cor. 15:24-28, where Christ’s lordship in terms both of Ps. 110:1 and Ps. 8:6 climaxes in the Son’s own subjection to God the Father, “that God may be all in all. ” Even the Philippians hymn must be mentioned here; for in my judgment it is an expression of Adam christology, so that Phil. 2:10 is best seen as a confession of Christ’s lordship as (last) Adam, where, Paul makes it plain, all creation acknowledges Christ’s lordship “to the glory of God the Father” (Phil 2:11)

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Conclusion

1 Corinthians 8:4-6 summarizes the understanding of the One God and Father and the one Lord Jesus Christ in a succinct manner. In the category of “gods” there is only one God our father who is the creator and reason why we exist. In the category of “lords” we hold Jesus Christ (anointed Messiah) to be the one Lord through whom we are saved. All things were made thorough the foreknowledge of Christ and all things are subjected under his feet. All things that will remain in existence will be reconciled through Christ. We see clearly that both Peter and Paul regarded God as “the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.”

Scriptural references are ESV (English Standard Version)

1 Corinthians 8:4-6, There is one God the Father, and one Lord Jesus Christ

“… there is no God but one.” 5 For although there may be so-called gods in heaven or on earth—as indeed there are many “gods” and many “lords”— 6 yet for us there is one God, the Father, from whom are all things and for whom we exist, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things and through whom we exist. 

Acts 2:36, God has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus

36 Let all the house of Israel therefore know for certain that God has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified.”

1 Peter 1:3, Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ

3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ! According to his great mercy, he has caused us to be born again to a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead

2 Corinthians 1:2-3,  the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ

2 Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies and God of all comfort

  • Final notes
    • The Father, who is God, is here as everywhere else said to be the source and origin of creation
    • Paul and Peter speak of God not simply as the God of Christ but as the ‘God of our Lord Jesus Christ.’
    • The lord Messiah is not to be confused with the Lord God. The two lords are carefully distinguished in psalms 110:1. YHWH is the one God and the second lord of Psalm 110:1 is the human being, adoni, “my lord,” the Messiah. Adoni is never a title of Deity, but always of non-Deity. 
    • Jesus is called “our Lord Messiah” scores of times in the New Testament. Lord here refers to the human Messiah
    • Even as Lord,  Jesus acknowledges his Father as his God (John 20:17).
    • Here it becomes plain that kyrious (lord) is not so much a way of identifying Jesus with God, but if anything more of a way of distinguishing Jesus from God” – (Dr James Dunn, The theology of Paul the Apostle, p.254)
    • The context is the key to understanding what the phrase “all things came through him” means. There is no mention in either the immediate or the remote context about the creation of the world such that the “all things” refers to the original creation of Genesis. This verse is speaking about salvation through Christ and the inheritance we have in the world to come. 
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Additional Resources 

One God & One Lord: Reconsidering the Cornerstone of the Christian Faith

BiblicalUnitarian.com

www.biblicalunitarian.com/articles/jesus-christ/one-god-one-lord-reconsidering-the-cornerstone-of-the-christian

One God & One Lord : Reconsidering the Cornerstone of the Christian Faith

https://amzn.to/3vxdG8L

Building an impressive and compelling case for the unity of the biblical testimony concerning the true humanity of Jesus, “the last Adam,” the authors reveal the profound significance of the two aspects of his coming: suffering and glory. They seek a view of Christ that allows for a total appreciation of his steadfast obedience to God in the face of temptation, suffering and even a humiliating death. Vindicated by his resurrection, he entered into glory and now sits in a position of functional equality with God, analogous to the relationship of Joseph and Pharaoh in the Book of Genesis. Because the Gospel of John is often isolated and magnified to establish and fortify orthodox Christology, the authors explore in depth the unique depiction of Christ in “the Fourth Gospel”. They succeed in placing John’s testimony harmoniously and understandably within the margins of the prophetic portrait of the Messiah. 

BiblicalAgency.com