Jesus is Not God: Deductive Arguments
Jesus is Not God: Deductive Arguments

Jesus is Not God: Deductive Arguments

Overview of Deductive Reasoning:

Deductive reasoning is the mental process of drawing deductive inferences. An inference is deductively valid if its conclusion (C) follows logically from its premises (P1 and P2),  i.e. if it is impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion to be false. Below are 25 arguments of why Jesus is not God based on deductive rules of inference. Unless otherwise indicated, quotes are from the ESV (English Standard Version).

1. Jesus was sent by God (not himself)

P1: If one is sent by another, then he/she is an agent of the one he/she is sent by.

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P2: Jesus was sent by God.

  • “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim liberty to the captives and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty those who are oppressed, to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor.” (Luke 4:18-19)
  • “I must preach the good news of the kingdom of God to the other towns as well; for I was sent for this purpose.” (Luke 4:43)
  • “The one who hears you hears me, and the one who rejects you rejects me, and the one who rejects me rejects him who sent me.” (Luke 10:16)
  • “God, having raised up his servant, sent him to you first, to bless you by turning every one of you from your wickedness.” (Acts 3:26)
  • “But when the fullness of time had come, God sent forth his Son, born of woman, born under the law” (Galatians 4:4)
  • “Jesus said to them, “My food is to do the will of him who sent me and to accomplish his work.” (John 4:34)
  • “I can do nothing on my own. As I hear, I judge, and my judgment is just, because I seek not my own will but the will of him who sent me.” (John 5:30)
  • “Jesus answered them, “My teaching is not mine, but his who sent me.” (John 7:16)
  • “I have not come of my own accord. He who sent me is true, and him you do not know.” (John 7:28)
  • “Yet even if I do judge, my judgment is true, for it is not I alone who judge, but I and the Father who sent me. In your Law it is written that the testimony of two people is true. I am the one who bears witness about myself, and the Father who sent me bears witness about me.” (John 8:16-18)
  • “Jesus said to them, “When you have lifted up the Son of Man, then you will know that I am he, and that I do nothing on my own authority, but speak just as the Father taught me. And he who sent me is with me. He has not left me alone, for I always do the things that are pleasing to him.” (John 8:28-29)
  • “Jesus said to them, “If God were your Father, you would love me, for I came from God and I am here. I came not of my own accord, but he sent me.” (John 8:42)
  • “Do you say of him whom the Father consecrated and sent into the world, ‘You are blaspheming,’ because I said, ‘I am the Son of God’?” (John 10:36)
  • “For I have not spoken on my own authority, but the Father who sent me has himself given me a commandment—what to say and what to speak.” (John 12:49)
  • “Whoever does not love me does not keep my words. And the word that you hear is not mine but the Father’s who sent me.” (John 14:24)
  • “And this is eternal life, that they know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent. I glorified you on earth, having accomplished the work that you gave me to do.” (John 17:3-4)
  • “As you sent me into the world, so I have sent them into the world.” (John 17:18)

C1: Jesus is an agent of God

P3: God is not an agent of God

C2: Jesus is not God

2. Jesus spoke on God’s behalf and authority (not his own)

P1: If one speaks on another person’s behalf and with another person’s authority, then he/she is an agent of the one he/she acts on behalf of.

P2: Jesus spoke on God’s behalf and authority.

  • “My teaching is not mine, but his who sent me” (John 7:16)
  • “he who sent me is true, and I declare to the world what I have heard from him” (John 8:26)
  • “I do nothing on my own authority, but speak just as the Father taught me” (John 8:28)
  • “but now you seek to kill me, a man who has told you the truth that I heard from God” (John 8:40)
  • “I have not spoken on my own authority, but the Father who sent me has himself given me a commandment—what to say and what to speak” (John 12:49)
  • “the word that you hear is not mine but the Father’s who sent me” (John 14:24)

C1: Jesus is an agent of God

P3: God is not an agent of God

C2: Jesus is not God

3. Jesus did the will of the Father (not his own)

P1: If one does the will of the other person, then he/she is an agent of the one he/she does the will of.

P2: Jesus did the will of Father God.

  • “It is written, “‘You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve.’”
  • “Father, if you are willing, remove this cup from me. Nevertheless, not my will, but yours, be done” (Luke 22:42)
  • My food is to do the will of him who sent me and to accomplish his work” (John 4:34)
  • “I seek not my own will but the will of him who sent me” (John 5:30)
  • “I do nothing on my own authority” (John 8:28)
  • “I have shown you many good works from the Father” (John 10:32)
  • “I have kept my Father’s commandments and abide in his love” (John 15:10)
  • Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ, who gave himself for our sins to deliver us from the present evil age, according to the will of our God and Father (Gal 1:3-4)
  • he humbled himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross (Phil 2:8)
  • he did not threaten, but continued entrusting himself to him who judges justly (1Pet 2:23)

C1: Jesus is an agent of God

P3: God is not an agent of God

C2: Jesus is not God

4. Jesus was appointed/chosen by God (not himself)

P1: If one is appointed/chosen by the one he/she serves, then he/she is an agent of the one that appointed/chose him/her

P2: Jesus was appointed/chosen by God

  • “Behold, my servant whom I have chosen, my beloved with whom my soul is well pleased. I will put my Spirit upon him, and he will proclaim justice to the Gentiles.” (Matt 12:18)
  • “This is my Son, my Chosen One; listen to him!” (Luke 9:35)
  • “Let him save himself, if he is the Christ of God, his Chosen One!” (Luke 23:35)
  •  “That he may send the Christ appointed for you, Jesus” (Acts 3:20)
  • “He is the one appointed by God to be judge of the living and the dead” (Acts 10:42)
  • “He [God] will judge the world in righteousness by a man whom he has appointed” (Acts 17:31)
  • “Consider Jesus, the apostle and high priest of our confession, who was faithful to him who appointed him, just as Moses also was faithful in all God’s house.” (Hebrews 3:1-2)
  • “For every high priest chosen from among men is appointed to act on behalf of men in relation to God, to offer gifts and sacrifices for sins.” (Hebrews 5:1)

C1: Jesus is an agent of God

P3: God is not an agent of God

C2: Jesus is not God

5. Jesus was endorsed / empowered by God (not himself)

P1: If one is endorsed or empowered by the one he/she serves, then he/she is an agent of the one that endorsed/empowered him/her

P2: Jesus was endorsed and empowered by God

  • “And behold, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus. He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. And the Lord God will give to him the throne of his father David, and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end.”” (Luke 1:31-33)
  • “The Holy Spirit descended on him in bodily form, like a dove; and a voice came from heaven, “You are my beloved Son; with you I am well pleased.”” (Luke 3:22)
  • “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me because he has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor” (Luke 4:16-21)
  • “This is my Son, my Chosen One; listen to him!” (Luke 9:35)
  • “Jesus of Nazareth, a man attested to you by God with mighty works and wonders and signs that God did through him in your midst” (Acts 2:22)
  • “God has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified.” (Acts 2:36)
  • “there were gathered together against your holy servant Jesus, whom you anointed” (Acts 4:27)
  • “God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and with power. He went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil, for God was with him.” (Acts 10:38)

C1: Jesus is an agent of God

P3: God is not an agent of God

C2: Jesus is not God

6. Jesus was subject to birth and childhood

P1: If Jesus was born a human, then Jesus was subject to birth and childhood

  • “And the angel said to her, “Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God. And behold, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus.” (Luke 1:30-31)
  • “And Joseph also went up from Galilee… to be registered with Mary, his betrothed, who was with child. And while they were there, the time came for her to give birth. And she gave birth to her firstborn son and wrapped him in swaddling cloths and laid him in a manger” (Luke 2:4-7)
  • “And they went with haste and found Mary and Joseph, and the baby lying in a manger.  And when they saw it, they made known the saying that had been told them concerning this child.” (Luke 2:16-17)
  • “And Simeon blessed them and said to Mary his mother, “Behold, this child is appointed for the fall and rising of many in Israel, and for a sign that is opposed” (Luke 2:34)
  • “And the child grew and became strong, filled with wisdom. And the favor of God was upon him.” (Luke 2:40)

P2: God was not subject to birth and childhood

C: Jesus is not God

7. Jesus was a man

P1: If Jesus was a man, then Jesus is a product of creation

  • “but now you seek to kill me, a man who has told you the truth that I heard from God” (John 8:40)
  • “Men of Israel, hear these words: Jesus of Nazareth, a man attested to you by God with mighty works and wonders and signs that God did through him in your midst, as you yourselves know— this Jesus, delivered up according to the definite plan and foreknowledge of God, you crucified and killed by the hands of lawless men.” (Acts 2:22-24)
  • “The times of ignorance God overlooked, but now he commands all people everywhere to repent, because he has fixed a day on which he will judge the world in righteousness by a man whom he has appointed; and of this he has given assurance to all by raising him from the dead.” (Acts 17:30-31)
  •  “if many died through one man’s trespass, much more have the grace of God and the free gift by the grace of that one man Jesus Christ abounded for many. (Romans 5:15)
  • “For as by the one man’s disobedience the many were made sinners, so by the one man’s obedience the many will be made righteous.” (Romans 5:19)
  • “There is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, who gave himself as a ransom for all, which is the testimony given at the proper time.” (1 Tim 2:5-6)
  • “For every high priest chosen from among men is appointed to act on behalf of men in relation to God” (Heb 5:1)

P2: God is not a product of creation

C: Jesus is not God 

8. Adam was a type of him who was to come

P1: If Adam was a type of him who was to come, namely Jesus, then Jesus is a type of Adam

  • “Death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those whose sinning was not like the transgression of Adam, who was a type of the one who was to come.” (Romans 5:14)
  • “if many died through one man’s trespass, much more have the grace of God and the free gift by the grace of that one man Jesus Christ abounded for many. (Romans 5:15)
  • “For as by the one man’s disobedience the many were made sinners, so by the one man’s obedience the many will be made righteous.” (Romans 5:19)
  • “Thus it is written, “The first man Adam became a living being”; the last Adam became a life-giving spirit.” (1 Corinthians 15:45)

P2: God is not a type of Adam

C: Jesus is not God

9. Jesus grew in favor with God

P1: If Jesus grew in favor with God, then Jesus is distinguished from God

  • “And the child grew and became strong, filled with wisdom. And the favor of God was upon him.” (Luke 2:40)
  • “And Jesus increased in wisdom and in stature and in favor with God and man.” (Luke 2:52)
  • “Now when all the people were baptized, and when Jesus also had been baptized and was praying, the heavens were opened, and the Holy Spirit descended on him in bodily form, like a dove; and a voice came from heaven, “You are my beloved Son; with you I am well pleased.” (Luke 3:21-22) 
  • “And a voice came out of the cloud, saying, “This is my Son, my Chosen One; listen to him!” (Luke 9:35)
  • “Being therefore exalted at the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, he has poured out this that you yourselves are seeing and hearing. For David did not ascend into the heavens, but he himself says, “‘The Lord said to my Lord, “Sit at my right hand,  until I make your enemies your footstool.”’  Let all the house of Israel therefore know for certain that God has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified.” (Acts 2:33-36)
  • “In the days of his flesh, Jesus offered up prayers and supplications, with loud cries and tears, to him who was able to save him from death, and he was heard because of his reverence. Although he was a son, he learned obedience through what he suffered. And being made perfect, he became the source of eternal salvation to all who obey him” (Hebrews 5:7-10)
  • “For when he received honor and glory from God the Father, and the voice was borne to him by the Majestic Glory, “This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased,”” (2 Peter 1:17)

P2: God is not distinguished from God

C: Jesus is not God

10. Jesus was subjected to temptation

P1: If Jesus was subjected to temptation, then Jesus was beset with weakness

  • “And Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan and was led by the Spirit in the wilderness for forty days, being tempted by the devil.” (Luke 4:1-2)
  • “And when the devil had ended every temptation, he departed from him until an opportune time.” (Luke 4:13)
  • “And when he came to the place, he said to them, “Pray that you may not enter into temptation.” And he withdrew from them about a stone’s throw, and knelt down and prayed, saying, “Father, if you are willing, remove this cup from me. Nevertheless, not my will, but yours, be done.” And there appeared to him an angel from heaven, strengthening him. And being in agony he prayed more earnestly; and his sweat became like great drops of blood falling down to the ground. (Luke 22:40-44)
  • And going a little farther, he fell on the ground and prayed that, if it were possible, the hour might pass from him. (Mark 14:35)
  • “For because he himself has suffered when tempted, he is able to help those who are being tempted.” (Hebrews 2:18)
  •  “For we do not have a high priest who is unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but one who in every respect has been tempted as we are, yet without sin.” (Hebrews 4:15)
  • “For every high priest chosen from among men is appointed to act on behalf of men in relation to God, to offer gifts and sacrifices for sins. He can deal gently with the ignorant and wayward, since he himself is beset with weakness.” (Hebrews 5:1-2)
  • “In the days of his flesh, Jesus offered up prayers and supplications, with loud cries and tears, to him who was able to save him from death, and he was heard because of his reverence. Although he was a son, he learned obedience through what he suffered. And being made perfect, he became the source of eternal salvation to all who obey him” (Hebrews 5:7-10)

P2: God is not beset with weakness

C: Jesus is not God

11. Jesus was dependent on prayer

P1: If Jesus was dependent on prayer, then Jesus depended on power beyond himself

  • “And rising very early in the morning, while it was still dark, he departed and went out to a desolate place, and there he prayed.” (Mark 1:35)
  • “Now when all the people were baptized, and when Jesus also had been baptized and was praying, the heavens were opened” (Luke 3:21)
  • But now even more the report about him went abroad, and great crowds gathered to hear him and to be healed of their infirmities. But he would withdraw to desolate places and pray. (Luke 5:15-16)
  • “And after he had taken leave of them, he went up on the mountain to pray.” (Mark 6:46)
  • “In these days he went out to the mountain to pray, and all night he continued in prayer to God.” (Luke 6:12)
  •  “Now it happened that as he was praying alone, the disciples were with him. And he asked them, “Who do the crowds say that I am?” (Luke 9:18)
  • “He took with him Peter and John and James and went up on the mountain to pray. And as he was praying, the appearance of his face was altered, and his clothing became dazzling white.” (Luke 9:28-29)
  • Now Jesus was praying in a certain place, and when he finished, one of his disciples said to him, “Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples.” (Luke 11:1)
  • “And he told them a parable to the effect that they ought always to pray and not lose heart.” (Luke 18:1)
  • “And when he came to the place, he said to them, “Pray that you may not enter into temptation.” And he withdrew from them about a stone’s throw, and knelt down and prayed, saying, “Father, if you are willing, remove this cup from me. Nevertheless, not my will, but yours, be done.” And there appeared to him an angel from heaven, strengthening him. And being in agony he prayed more earnestly; and his sweat became like great drops of blood falling down to the ground. (Luke 22:40-44)

P2: God does not depend on power beyond himself

C: Jesus is not God

12. Jesus was subjected to death

P1: If Jesus was subjected to death, then Jesus died

  • Then Jesus, calling out with a loud voice, said, “Father, into your hands I commit my spirit!” And having said this he breathed his last.” (Luke 23:46)
  •  “Thus it is written, that the Christ should suffer and on the third day rise from the dead, and that repentance for the forgiveness of sins should be proclaimed in his name to all nations, beginning from Jerusalem.” (Luke 24:46-47)
  • “this Jesus, delivered up according to the definite plan and foreknowledge of God, you crucified and killed by the hands of lawless men.” (Acts 2:23)
  • “For while we were still weak, at the right time Christ died for the ungodly.” (Romans 5:6)
  • For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received: that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the Scriptures” (1 Cor 15:3)
  • “he humbled himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross.” (Philippians 2:8)
  • “I died, and behold I am alive forevermore, and I have the keys of Death and Hades.” (Revelation 1:18)

P2: God cannot die

C: Jesus is not God

13. God granted Jesus eternal life

P1: If God has granted Jesus eternal life, Jesus’ life (existence) is dependent on another

  • “The patriarch David that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day. Being therefore a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him that he would set one of his descendants on his throne, he foresaw and spoke about the resurrection of the Christ, that he was not abandoned to Hades, nor did his flesh see corruption. This Jesus God raised up, and of that we all are witnesses.” (Acts 2:29-32)
  • “Let it be known to all of you and to all the people of Israel that by the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom you crucified, whom God raised from the dead—by him this man is standing before you well.” (Acts 4:10)
  • “The God of our fathers raised Jesus, whom you killed by hanging him on a tree. God exalted him at his right hand as Leader and Savior, to give repentance to Israel and forgiveness of sins.” (Acts 5:30)
  • “And when they had carried out all that was written of him, they took him down from the tree and laid him in a tomb. But God raised him from the dead, and for many days he appeared to those who had come up with him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are now his witnesses to the people. And we bring you the good news that what God promised to the fathers, this he has fulfilled to us their children by raising Jesus, as also it is written in the second Psalm, “‘You are my Son, today I have begotten you.’ And as for the fact that he raised him from the dead, no more to return to corruption, he has spoken in this way, “‘I will give you the holy and sure blessings of David.’ Therefore he says also in another psalm, “‘You will not let your Holy One see corruption.’” (Acts 13:29-35)
  • “God raised the Lord and will also raise us up by his power.” (1Cor 1:14)
  • “Truly, truly, I say to you, an hour is coming, and is now here, when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear will live. For as the Father has life in himself, so he has granted the Son also to have life in himself. And he has given him authority to execute judgment, because he is the Son of Man.” (John 5:25-27)
  • “When Jesus had spoken these words, he lifted up his eyes to heaven, and said, “Father, the hour has come; glorify your Son that the Son may glorify you, since you have given him authority over all flesh, to give eternal life to all whom you have given him. And this is eternal life, that they know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent.” (John 17:1-3)

P2: God’s life and existence is not dependent on another

C: Jesus is not God

14. Jesus was a prophet/apostle of God

P1: If Jesus was a prophet and apostle of God, then Jesus is an agent of God

  • “And Jesus said to them, “A prophet is not without honor, except in his hometown and among his relatives and in his own household.” And he could do no mighty work there, except that he laid his hands on a few sick people and healed them. And he marveled because of their unbelief.” (Mark 6:4-6)
  • “And he said, “Truly, I say to you, no prophet is acceptable in his hometown.” (Luke 4:24)
  • “For Jesus himself had testified that a prophet has no honor in his own hometown.” (John 4:44)
  • “Nevertheless, I must go on my way today and tomorrow and the day following, for it cannot be that a prophet should perish away from Jerusalem.’ O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the city that kills the prophets and stones those who are sent to it!” (Luke 13:33-34)
  •  Moses said, ‘The Lord God will raise up for you a prophet like me from your brothers. You shall listen to him in whatever he tells you. And it shall be that every soul who does not listen to that prophet shall be destroyed from the people… God, having raised up his servant, sent him to you first, to bless you by turning every one of you from your wickedness.”’ (Acts 3:22-23, 26)
  • “Consider Jesus, the apostle and high priest of our confession, who was faithful to him who appointed him, just as Moses also was faithful in all God’s house.” (Hebrews 3:1-2)
  • “and from Jesus Christ the faithful witness” (Revelation 1:5)

P2: God is not an agent of God

C: Jesus is not God

15. Jesus is identified as a servant in reference to God

P1: If Jesus is identified in the Bible as a servant in reference to God, then Jesus is a servant distinguished from God

  • “Behold, my servant whom I have chosen, my beloved with whom my soul is well pleased. I will put my Spirit upon him, and he will proclaim justice to the Gentiles.” (Matt 12:18)
  • “The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, the God of our fathers, glorified his servant Jesus” (Acts 3:13)
  • “God, having raised up his servant, sent him to you first, to bless you by turning every one of you from your wickedness” (Acts 3:26)
  • “for truly in this city there were gathered together against your holy servant Jesus, whom you anointed” (Acts 4:27)
  • “signs and wonders are performed through the name of your holy servant Jesus” (Acts 4:30)
  • “Behold, my servant shall act wisely; he shall be high and lifted up, and shall be exalted” (Isaiah 52:13)
  • “By his knowledge shall the righteous one, my servant, make many to be accounted righteous, and he shall bear their iniquities.” (Isaiah 53:11)

P2: God cannot be a servant distinguished from himself

C: Jesus is not God

16. Jesus has a God

P1: If Jesus has a God, then God is greater than Jesus

  • And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, “Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?” which means, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?” (Mark 15:34)
  • Jesus answered, “If I glorify myself, my glory is nothing. It is my Father who glorifies me, of whom you say, ‘He is our God.’ (John 8:54)
  • “And this is eternal life, that they know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent.” (John 17:3)
  • Jesus said to her, “Do not cling to me, for I have not yet ascended to the Father; but go to my brothers and say to them, ‘I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.’” (John 20:17)
  • “That together you may with one voice glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ” (Rom 15:6)
  • “Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies and God of all comfort” (2Cor 1:3)
  • “That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give you the Spirit of wisdom and of revelation in the knowledge of him” (Eph 1:7)
  • “We always thank God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, when we pray for you” (Col 1:3)
  • “But I want you to understand that the head of every man is Christ, the head of a wife is her husband, and the head of Christ is God” (1Cor 11:3)

P2: God is not greater than himself

C: Jesus is not God

17. Jesus prays to and speaks of another who is identified as God or greater than himself

P1: If Jesus prays to and speaks of another, identifying him as God or someone greater than himself, then Jesus is distinguishing God apart from himself

  • In these days he went out to the mountain to pray, and all night he continued in prayer to God. (Luke 6:12)
  • And Jesus said to him, “Why do you call me good? No one is good except God alone. (Luke 18:19)
  • And he withdrew from them about a stone’s throw, and knelt down and prayed, saying, “Father, if you are willing, remove this cup from me. Nevertheless, not my will, but yours, be done.” (Luke 22:41-42)
  • But from now on the Son of Man shall be seated at the right hand of the power of God.” (Luke 22:69)
  • “but now you seek to kill me, a man who has told you the truth that I heard from God.” (John 8:40)
  • Jesus answered, “If I glorify myself, my glory is nothing. It is my Father who glorifies me, of whom you say, ‘He is our God.’ (John 8:54)
  • My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all, and no one is able to snatch them out of the Father’s hand. (John 10:29)
  • I am going away, and I will come to you.’ If you loved me, you would have rejoiced, because I am going to the Father, for the Father is greater than I. (John 14:28)
  • “When Jesus had spoken these words, he lifted up his eyes to heaven, and said, “Father, the hour has come; glorify your Son that the Son may glorify you, since you have given him authority over all flesh, to give eternal life to all whom you have given him. And this is eternal life, that they know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent.” (John 17:1-3)
  • Jesus said to her, “Do not cling to me, for I have not yet ascended to the Father; but go to my brothers and say to them, ‘I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.’” (John 20:17)

P2: God is not someone distinguished from himself

C: Jesus is not God

18. Jesus could do nothing of himself

P1: If Jesus could do nothing of himself, then Jesus was limited within himself

  • “So Jesus said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, the Son can do nothing of his own accord, but only what he sees the Father doing” (John 5:19)
  • “I can do nothing on my own. As I hear, I judge, and my judgment is just, because I seek not my own will but the will of him who sent me. If I alone bear witness about myself, my testimony is not true. (John 5:30-32)
  • “Jesus said to them, “When you have lifted up the Son of Man, then you will know that I am he, and that I do nothing on my own authority, but speak just as the Father taught me.” (John 8:28)
  • “Jesus answered, “If I glorify myself, my glory is nothing. It is my Father who glorifies me, of whom you say, ‘He is our God.’” (John 8:54)
  • “Men of Israel, hear these words: Jesus of Nazareth, a man attested to you by God with mighty works and wonders and signs that God did through him in your midst” (Acts 2:22)
  • “God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and with power. He went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil, for God was with him.” (Acts 10:38)

P2: God is not limited within himself

C: Jesus is not God

19. God had anointed Jesus

P1: If God had anointed Jesus, then Jesus is anointed by God 

  • “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. (Luke 4:18)
  • “they lifted their voices together to God and said, “Sovereign Lord, who made the heaven and the earth and the sea and everything in them,  who through the mouth of our father David, your servant, said by the Holy Spirit, “‘Why did the Gentiles rage, and the peoples plot in vain? The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers were gathered together, against the Lord and against his Anointed’— for truly in this city there were gathered together against your holy servant Jesus, whom you anointed (Acts 4:24-37)
  • “God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and with power. He went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil, for God was with him.” (Acts 10:38)
  •  You have loved righteousness and hated wickedness; therefore God, your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness beyond your companions.” (Hebrews 1:9)

P2: God is not anointed by God

C: Jesus is not God

20. Jesus was sent by God

P1: If Jesus was sent by God, then God is the sender

  • “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim liberty to the captives and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty those who are oppressed, to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor.” (Luke 4:18-19)
  • “I must preach the good news of the kingdom of God to the other towns as well; for I was sent for this purpose.” (Luke 4:43)
  • “The one who hears you hears me, and the one who rejects you rejects me, and the one who rejects me rejects him who sent me.” (Luke 10:16)
  • “God, having raised up his servant, sent him to you first, to bless you by turning every one of you from your wickedness.” (Acts 3:26)
  • “But when the fullness of time had come, God sent forth his Son, born of woman, born under the law” (Galatians 4:4)
  • “Jesus said to them, “My food is to do the will of him who sent me and to accomplish his work.” (John 4:34)
  • “I can do nothing on my own. As I hear, I judge, and my judgment is just, because I seek not my own will but the will of him who sent me.” (John 5:30)
  • “Jesus answered them, “My teaching is not mine, but his who sent me.” (John 7:16)
  • “I have not come of my own accord. He who sent me is true, and him you do not know.” (John 7:28)
  • “Yet even if I do judge, my judgment is true, for it is not I alone who judge, but I and the Father who sent me. In your Law it is written that the testimony of two people is true. I am the one who bears witness about myself, and the Father who sent me bears witness about me.” (John 8:16-18)
  • “Jesus said to them, “When you have lifted up the Son of Man, then you will know that I am he, and that I do nothing on my own authority, but speak just as the Father taught me. And he who sent me is with me. He has not left me alone, for I always do the things that are pleasing to him.” (John 8:28-29)
  • “Jesus said to them, “If God were your Father, you would love me, for I came from God and I am here. I came not of my own accord, but he sent me.” (John 8:42)
  • “Do you say of him whom the Father consecrated and sent into the world, ‘You are blaspheming,’ because I said, ‘I am the Son of God’?” (John 10:36)
  • “For I have not spoken on my own authority, but the Father who sent me has himself given me a commandment—what to say and what to speak.” (John 12:49)
  • “Whoever does not love me does not keep my words. And the word that you hear is not mine but the Father’s who sent me.” (John 14:24)
  • “And this is eternal life, that they know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent. I glorified you on earth, having accomplished the work that you gave me to do.” (John 17:3-4)
  • “As you sent me into the world, so I have sent them into the world.” (John 17:18)

P2: Jesus is not the sender

C: Jesus is not God

21. Jesus’s authority was given to him

P1: If Jesus’s authority was given to him by God, then the source of Jesus’ authority is apart from himself

  • “And Jesus came and said to them, “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me.”” (Matthew 28:18)
  • “So Jesus said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, the Son can do nothing of his own accord” (John 5:19)
  • “For as the Father has life in himself, so he has granted the Son also to have life in himself. And he has given him authority to execute judgment, because he is the Son of Man.” (John 5:26-27)
  • “So Jesus answered them, “My teaching is not mine, but his who sent me. If anyone’s will is to do God’s will, he will know whether the teaching is from God or whether I am speaking on my own authority. The one who speaks on his own authority seeks his own glory; but the one who seeks the glory of him who sent him is true, and in him there is no falsehood.” (John 7:16-18)
  • “So Jesus said to them, “When you have lifted up the Son of Man, then you will know that I am he, and that I do nothing on my own authority, but speak just as the Father taught me. And he who sent me is with me. He has not left me alone, for I always do the things that are pleasing to him.”” (John 8:28-29)
  • “For I have not spoken on my own authority, but the Father who sent me has himself given me a commandment—what to say and what to speak. And I know that his commandment is eternal life. What I say, therefore, I say as the Father has told me.” (John 12:49-50)
  • “When Jesus had spoken these words, he lifted up his eyes to heaven, and said, “Father, the hour has come; glorify your Son that the Son may glorify you, since you have given him authority over all flesh, to give eternal life to all whom you have given him. And this is eternal life, that they know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent.” (John 17:1-3)
  • “God has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified.” (Acts 2:36)
  • “And being found in human form, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross. Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him the name that is above every name, so that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.” (Philippians 2:8-11)

P2: The source of God’s authority is not apart from himself

C: Jesus is not God

22. Jesus is at the right hand of God

P1: If Jesus is at the right hand of God, then Jesus is distinguished from God (who he is at the right hand of)

  • “But from now on the Son of Man shall be seated at the right hand of the power of God.” (Luke 22:69)
  • “This Jesus God raised up, and of that we all are witnesses. Being therefore exalted at the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, he has poured out this that you yourselves are seeing and hearing.” (Acts 2:32-33)
  • “The God of our fathers raised Jesus, whom you killed by hanging him on a tree. God exalted him at his right hand as Leader and Savior, to give repentance to Israel and forgiveness of sins.” (Acts 5:30-31)
  • “But he, full of the Holy Spirit, gazed into heaven and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing at the right hand of God. And he said, “Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of God.” (Acts 7:55-56)
  • “Christ Jesus is the one who died—more than that, who was raised—who is at the right hand of God, who indeed is interceding for us.” (Romans 8:34)
  • “according to the working of his great might that he worked in Christ when he raised him from the dead and seated him at his right hand in the heavenly places” (Eph 1:19-20)
  • And to which of the angels has he ever said, “Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet”? (Hebrews 1:13)

P2: God is not distinguished from God

C: Jesus is not God

23. Jesus is the intermediary of God, and an intermediary implies more than one

P1: If Jesus is the intermediary of God, then Jesus is a person distinguished from God

  • “There is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, who gave himself as a ransom for all” (1 Timothy 2:5-6)
  • “the law? It was added because of transgressions, until the offspring should come to whom the promise had been made, and it was put in place through angels by an intermediary. Now, an intermediary implies more than one, but God is one.” (Galatians 3:19-20)
  • “But as it is, Christ has obtained a ministry that is as much more excellent than the old as the covenant he mediates is better, since it is enacted on better promises.” (Hebrews 8:6)
  • “Therefore he [Jesus] is the mediator of a new covenant” (Hebrews 9:15)
  • “and to Jesus, the mediator of a new covenant” (Hebrews 12:24)

P2: God is not a person distinguished from God

C: Jesus is not God

24. Jesus is a high priest chosen from among men to act on behalf of man in relation to God

P1: If Jesus is a high priest, then Jesus is selected from among men to act on behalf of men in relation to God

  • “He had to be made like his brothers in every respect, so that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in the service of God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people. For because he himself has suffered when tempted, he is able to help those who are being tempted. (Hebrews 2:17-18)
  • “Consider Jesus, the apostle and high priest of our confession, who was faithful to him who appointed him, just as Moses also was faithful in all God’s house.” (Hebrews 3:1-2)
  • “We do not have a high priest who is unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but one who in every respect has been tempted as we are, yet without sin.” (Hebrews 4:15)
  • “For every high priest chosen from among men is appointed to act on behalf of men in relation to God, to offer gifts and sacrifices for sins.” (Hebrews 5:1)
  • “Christ did not exalt himself to be made a high priest, but was appointed by him who said to him, “You are my Son, today I have begotten you”; as he says also in another place, “You are a priest forever, after the order of Melchizedek.” In the days of his flesh, Jesus offered up prayers and supplications, with loud cries and tears, to him who was able to save him from death, and he was heard because of his reverence. Although he was a son, he learned obedience through what he suffered.” (Hebrews 5:5-8)

P2: God is not selected from among men to act on behalf of men in relation to God

C: Jesus is not God

25. Jesus is the image/expression of God

P1: If Jesus is the image of the invisible God (being the expression of God or in some sense being “one with God”), then Jesus is not one and the same entity as the God he is imaging or expressing

  • “He is the image of the invisible God” (Col 1:15)
  • “And He is the radiance of His glory and the exact representation of His nature” (Heb 1:3, NASB 2020)
  • “who, existing in the form of God, counted not the being on an equality with God a thing to be grasped” (Phil 2:6, ASV) For the correct understanding of Phil 2, see https://formofGod.com
  • “No one has ever seen God; the only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has made him known..” (John 1:18, RSV)
  • “If you had known me, you would have known my Father also. From now on you do know him and have seen him.”
    Philip said to him, “Lord, show us the Father, and it is enough for us.” Jesus said to him, “Have I been with you so long, and you still do not know me, Philip? Whoever has seen me has seen the Father. How can you say, ‘Show us the Father’?” (John 14:7-10)
  • “Great indeed, we confess, is the mystery of godliness: He was manifested in the flesh, vindicated by the Spirit, seen by angels, proclaimed among the nations, believed on in the world, taken up in glory.” (1Tim 3:16)

P2: God is one and the same entity as himself

C: Jesus is not God

Fallacious Syllogism

syllogism is a kind of logical argument to arrive at a conclusion based on two propositions asserted or assumed to be true. There are over a dozen types of fallacies associated with syllogisms. Many Christian apologists widely employ the use of syllogisms, and do so in a fallacious manner. A fallacy is the use of faulty reasoning, typically with wrong moves, in the construction of an argument. A fallacious argument may be deceptive by appearing to be better than it really is. Some fallacies are committed intentionally to manipulate or persuade by deception, while others are committed unintentionally due to carelessness or ignorance.

An example of a fallacious syllogism is 

P1: God is king
P2: David is king
P3: Jesus is king

Fallacious Conclusion: David is God or Jesus is God

The erroneous conclusion assumes that to be a king you must be God and that the title king is exclusive to God. There may be an aspect to God being king which is special, but that doesn’t necessitate that another must be king in the same sense. Christian apologists typically employ similar syllogisms in their attempt to infer Jesus is God. In the above example, other words can be used in exchange for “king”  including “lord”, “judge”, and “savior”. When parallel language (the same or similar language) is applied to two different entities, it does not make them the same person, power, or authority. We will address the common conflations of Jesus

God is our savior

P1: There is no savior besides the LORD God (Isaiah 43:10-11, Isaiah 45:21, Hosea 13:4)
P2: David is a savior (2 Samuel 3:18)
P3: God gave Israel saviors (Nehemiah 9:27)
P4: Jesus is our savior (Luke 2:11-14, Acts 5:30-31, 1John 4:14)

Fallacious Conclusion: Being called “savior” indicates that you are God. 
 

Correct Conclusion: All saviors are given by God. God is the ultimate and first cause of salvation. Apart from God, there is no provision for salvation. However, God works through human agents to accomplish his plans, and they can be said to be saviors as well. These human agents are the proximate or secondary cause of salvation. God’s saviors are those selected by God to implement his directives, including those who operate as servants of God to implement God’s plan for salvation.

Being called  “King of kings” does not prove one is God

P1: God is called King of Kings and Lord of lords (1 Tim 6:15-16)
P2: Artaxerxes is called “king of Kings” (Ezra 7:12)
P3: Nebuchadnezzar is called “king of Kings” (Ezekiel 26:7)
P4: Jesus is called “King of kings” and “Lord of lords” (Rev 17:14, Rev 19:16)
P5: The one to whom the God of heaven has given the kingdom is called “King of kings” (Daniel 2:37)

Fallacious Conclusion: Being called “King of kings” or “Lord of lords” indicates that you are God

Correct Conclusion: One to whom great power, might and glory can be called “King of kings” or “Lord of lords” whether or not they truly are God.

Being called  “Lord of all” does not prove one is God

P1: God is understood as being Lord of all (Rev 4:8)
P2: Jesus is Called Lord of all, and “Lord of lords” (Acts 10:36, Rev 17:14, Rev 19:16)
P3: God made Jesus both Lord and Christ (Acts 2:36)
P4: God exalted Jesus at his right hand as Leader and Savior (Acts 5:31)
P5: The head of Christ is God (1 Cor 11:3)
P6: When it says, “all things are subjected under his feet”, It is plain that he is exempted who put all things in subjection under him. (1 Cor 15:27)

Fallacious Conclusion: Being called “Lord over all” or “Lord of lords” indicates that you are God

Correct Conclusion: Jesus is Lord over all with the one exception: the one and only God who made him both Lord and Christ. Jesus has been exalted by God over all creation. The one true God who exalted Jesus remains above him. The head of Christ is God!

Being called “god” does not prove one is truly God

P1: God is called “god” (John 17:3)
P2: Moses was called “god” (Exodus 4:16, 7:1)
P3: Judges of old were called “god” (Exodus 21:6, 22:8-9, 22:28)
P4: Those to whom the word of God came were called “gods” (John 10:34-35, Psalms 82:6-7)
P5: Jesus was called “god” (Heb 1:8)
P6: There are many so-called “gods” (1 Cor 8:5)
P7: Satan is the “god” of this world (2 Cor 4:4)
P8: There is one God, the Father, from whom are all things and for whom we exist (1 Cor 8:6)
P9: The Father is the only true God (John 17:3)
P10: God alone is worshiped as the creator (Rev 4:11)

Fallacious Conclusion: Being called “god” indicates that you are truly God

Correct Conclusion: There is only one true God, the Father, others can be called “god” in some lesser sense. Being called “god” does not mean they literally are God.

There are multiple meanings of “is.” Other than the “is” of identity, two common uses of “is” pertains to (1) what is being said of a subject and (2) what is present in a subject. What is being said of a subject is the “is” of essential predication, and what is present in a subject is the “is” of accidental predication. What is present in a subject is accidental (non-essential) to that subject. For example, it is not essential for Jesus to be God to be a human being. However, Jesus, a human being, can be “God” in a figurative or representative sense if God is in some way present in him, as in the case of his words and power originating from God. God was active in Christ, empowering Jesus with authority and power. Saying Jesus is God is saying nothing of his substance (essential predication) if the statement is an accidental prediction. Rather, it is saying that the quality of God is present in him, although he was a human in ontology. Accidental predication, as it applies to the statement “Jesus is God” is in the same sense that those to whom the Word of God came were called “gods” in John 10:34-36.

 

Saying “I and the Father are one” is not an ontological statement

P1: Jesus said, “I and the Father are one” (John 10:30)
P2: Right before that, Jesus said, “the Father is greater than I” (John 10:29)
P3: Jesus made the “I and the Father are one” statement on account of him doing the works of the Father (John 10:32, John 10:37-38)
P4: Jesus prayed that his followers would be “one” even as Jesus and the Father are one (John 17:11)
P5: Jesus asked for those who would believe through their word, “that they may all be one, just as you, Father, are in me, and I in you, that they also may be in us” (John 17:20-21)
P6: Jesus further prayed, “The glory that you have given me I have given to them, that they may be one even as we are one, I in them and you in me, that they may become perfectly one (John 17:22-23)

Fallacious Conclusion: Stating that “I and the Father are one” is an indication of being God or sharing God’s ontology. 

Correct Conclusion: Oneness with God is not something exclusive to Jesus. It was Christ’s prayer that followers would be one with the Father, even as he is one with the Father; that they would be all “perfectly one.” 

Deductive rules of inference

Modus ponens (also known as “affirming the antecedent” or “the law of detachment”) is the primary deductive rule of inference. It applies to arguments that have as first premise a conditional statement () and as second premise the antecedent () of the conditional statement. It obtains the consequent () of the conditional statement as its conclusion. The argument form is listed below:

  1.   (First premise is a conditional statement)
  2.   (Second premise is the antecedent)
  3.   (Conclusion deduced is the consequent)

In this form of deductive reasoning, the consequent () obtains as the conclusion from the premises of a conditional statement () and its antecedent (). 

Modus tollens (also known as “the law of contrapositive”) is another deductive rule of inference. It validates an argument that has as premises a conditional statement (formula) and the negation of the consequent () and as conclusion the negation of the antecedent (). In contrast to modus ponens, reasoning with modus tollens goes in the opposite direction to that of the conditional. The general expression for modus tollens is the following:

  1. . (First premise is a conditional statement)
  2. . (Second premise is the negation of the consequent)
  3. . (Conclusion deduced is the negation of the antecedent)