Books
Books

Books

ESV Large Print Personal Size Bible (TruTone, Forest/Tan, Trail Design)

https://amzn.to/3e7iJqR

The ESV Large Print Personal Size Bible features highly readable 12-point Bible text in a portable trim size―made from quality materials and with line-matched text to minimize show-through from page to page, intended to provide a clean reading experience.

Features:

  • Ribbon marker
  • Smyth-sewn binding
  • 12-point Milo Serif OT type

The Comprehensive New Testament

https://amzn.to/2Rcl1vE

New Testament created especially for Bible studies. Whether you’re leading or just participating in a Bible study – when someone says, “My Bible doesn’t say that” you’ll be able to help everyone in the group understand the different texts. At the bottom of each page is a parallel textual apparatus that presents the textual choices of 20 Bible versions for each verse of the New Testament. This is the largest parallel textual apparatus for English Bible versions currently available. This will enable you to show everyone the reading in their Bible and everyone else’s Bible. The Comprehensive New Testament has complete textual variant mapping for 20 English versions. Footnotes are also provided in reference to variants of the Greek texts and are generally classified in two groups: The “Alexandrian” group represents the oldest surviving manuscripts. The “Byzantine” group represents the majority of manuscripts

The Lexham English Septuagint: A New Translation

https://amzn.to/3u6F0um

he Lexham English Septuagint (LES) is a new translation of the Septuagint, the Greek version of the Old Testament writings used during New Testament times and in the early church. Beautifully typeset in a comfortable, single-column format, the LES provides a literal, readable, and transparent English edition of the Septuagint for modern readers. Retaining the familiar forms of personal names and places, the LES gives readers the ability to read it alongside their favored English Bible. Translated directly from Swete’s edition of the Septuagint, the LES maintains the meaning of the original text, making the Septuagint accessible to readers today.

Holy Bible: From the Ancient Eastern Text: George M. Lamsa’s Translation From the Aramaic of the Peshitta

https://amzn.to/3xEAZzE

With this book a foremost New Testament scholar makes a signal contribution to the literature about the times of the first apostles. This period, when the memory of Jesus was fresh yet no written literature about him existed, lends itself well to the descriptive treatment Dr. Cadbury employs. The purpose of these pages, he writes, is to establish not so much the accuracy of the book of Acts as the reality of the scenes and customs and mentality which it reflects…. We can walk where the Apostle Paul walked, see what he saw, and become increasingly at home in his world. Five chapters deal with each of the five cultural strands then existing: Roman, Greek, Jewish, Christian, and cosmopolitan. The sixth attempts to reconstruct the earliest history of the book of Acts.

The One God, the Father, One Man Messiah Translation: New Testament with Commentary

https://amzn.to/3nzMUK9

Most churchgoers are unaware that what they receive in church as ‘Bible’ has been filtered to them through a lens of Greek philosophical thinking. This tradition adversely affects current Christian teaching, obscuring central aspects of the original belief of Jesus and the Apostles. Post-biblical councils did much to draw a veil over ‘the faith once delivered.’ Honest inquirers for the saving truth of Scripture will find this translation of the New Testament eye-opening. Most translations tend to ‘read into’ the biblical text ideas which were never intended by the New Testament writers.

Tyndale’s New Testament

https://amzn.to/3gRunrl

This translation of the New Testament into English from its original Greek was printed in Germany in 1534 and smuggled back into England. It therefore escaped the fate of Tyndale’s previous version, which had been seized and publicly burnt by the authorities. The 1534 edition outraged the clerical establishment by giving the laity access to the word of God, in print in English for the first time. Tyndale, who was already in exile for political reasons, was hunted down and subsequently burned at the stake for blasphemy. For the next eighty years―the years of Shakespeare among others―Tyndale’s masterly translation formed the basis of all English bibles. And when the authorized King James Bible was published in 1611, many of its finest passages were taken unchanged, though unacknowledged, from Tyndale’s work.

Early Church History and Textural Criticism 

The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture: The Effect of Early Christological Controversies on the Text of the New Testament

https://amzn.to/3nDaZA2

Victors not only write history: they also reproduce the texts. Bart Ehrman explores the close relationship between the social history of early Christianity and the textual tradition of the emerging New Testament, examining how early struggles between Christian “heresy” and “orthodoxy” affected the transmission of the documents over which many of the debates were waged. He makes a crucial contribution to our understanding of the social and intellectual history of early Christianity and raises intriguing questions about the relationship of readers to their texts, especially in an age when scribes could transform the documents they reproduced. This edition includes a new afterword surveying research in biblical interpretation over the past twenty years.

The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration (4th Edition) 

https://amzn.to/3e61mXj

This thoroughly revised edition of Bruce M. Metzger’s classic work is the most up-to-date manual available for the textual criticism of the New Testament. The Text of the New Testament, Fourth Edition, has been invigorated by the addition of Bart D. Ehrman. This revision brings the discussion of such important matters as the early Greek manuscripts and methods of textual criticism up to date, integrating recent research findings and approaches into the body of the text (as opposed to previous revisions, which compiled new material and notes into appendices). The standard text for courses in biblical studies and the history of Christianity since its first publication in 1964.

The Formation of the Christian Biblical Canon

https://amzn.to/3ny2FBi

Lee McDonald has written a lucid and accessible account of the formation of the Christian Bible, clearly marshalling the major evidence, working through the main problems, and reaching persuasive conclusions. Treating separately the canons of the Old and New Testaments, he provides translations of most of the ancient primary sources, good summaries of scholarly debates, and a useful guide to the extensive scholarly literature on the subject. This book will find an appreciative readership among students, pastors, and inquiring laypersons.

The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Vol. 1: The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100-600) (Volume 1)

https://amzn.to/3gRB4tt

By the year 600 Christian doctrine had achieved what Jaroslav terms an “orthodox consensus.” The years 100 to 600 were a period of great ferment and vitality. This is a history of this critical troubled time. Pelikan focuses upon the subtle relation between what the faithful believed, what teachers both orthodox and heretical – taught, and what the church confessed as dogma during its first six  centuries of  growth. 

The synoptic problem: a way through the maze

https://archive.org/details/synopticproblemw00good/mode/2uphttps://amzn.to/331iuHm /

https://amzn.to/3nMaEuL

Possibly the greatest literary enigma in history, the Synoptic Problem has fascinated generations of scholars. Yet the Synoptic Problem remains inaccessible to students, soon tangled up in its apparent complexities. But now Mark Goodacre offers a way through the maze, with the promise of emergence at the end, explaining in a lively and refreshing style what study of the Synoptic Problem involves, why it is important and how it might be solved. This is a readable, balanced and up-to-date guide, ideal for undergraduate students and the general reader.

The Case Against Q: Studies in Markan Priority and the Synoptic Problem

https://amzn.to/331iuHm /

http://www.markgoodacre.org/Q/

For over a century Gospel scholarship has accepted a hypothetical document called Q as one of the major sources of the Synoptic Gospels. In recent times, it has even been transformed from a sayings source to a Gospel in its own right. But, says Mark Goodacre in The Case Against Q, the majority acceptance of Q cannot function as an argument for its existence. From time to time dissenting voices have spoken against such widespread acceptance of Q as a Gospel. Scholars have pointed out, for instance, that Luke’s knowledge of Matthew and Mark would enable one to dispense with Q. Yet, such voices often have gone unheeded due to the lack of a clear, balanced, and scholarly treatment of the case against Q. So, in The Case Against Q Goodacre offers a careful and detailed critique of the Q hypothesis, examining the most important arguments of Q’s proponents.

Luke – Acts

A Theology of Luke and Acts: God’s Promised Program, Realized for All Nations (Biblical Theology of the New Testament Series)

https://amzn.to/3t4RPUJ

This groundbreaking work by Darrell Bock thoroughly explores the theology of Luke’s gospel and the book of Acts.  In his writing, Luke records the story of God working through Jesus to usher in a new era of promise and Spirit-enablement so that the people of God can be God’s people even in the midst of a hostile world.  It is a message the church still needs today.  Bock both covers major Lukan themes and sets forth the distinctive contribution of Luke-Acts to the New Testament and the canon of Scripture, providing readers with an in-depth and holistic grasp of Lukan theology in the larger context of the Bible.

Conversion in Luke-Acts: Divine Action, Human Cognition, and the People of God

https://amzn.to/3vwQM1n

Repentance and conversion are key topics in New Testament interpretation and in Christian life. However, the study of conversion in early Christianity has been plagued by psychological assumptions alien to the world of the New Testament. Leading New Testament scholar Joel Green believes that careful attention to the narrative of Luke-Acts calls for significant rethinking about the nature of Christian conversion. Drawing on the cognitive sciences and examining key evidence in Luke-Acts, this book emphasizes the embodied nature of human life as it explores the life transformation signaled by the message of conversion, offering a new reading of a key aspect of New Testament theology.

The Charismatic Theology of St. Luke: Trajectories from the Old Testament to Luke-Acts

https://amzn.to/3gRTGtw

What is the meaning of the Holy Spirit’s activity in Luke-Acts, and what are its implications for today? Roger Stronstad offers a cogent and thought-provoking study of Luke as a charismatic theologian whose understanding of the Spirit was shaped wholly by his understanding of Jesus and the nature of the early church. Stronstad locates Luke’s pneumatology in the historical background of Judaism and views Luke as an independent theologian who makes a unique contribution to the pneumatology of the New Testament. This work challenges traditional Protestants to reexamine the impact of Pentecost and explores the Spirit’s role in equipping God’s people for the unfinished task of mission. The second edition has been revised and updated throughout and includes a new foreword by Mark Allan Powell.

Luke: Historian & Theologian

https://amzn.to/3gUarEf

Apart from the apostle Paul, Luke is arguably the most influential force in the canon of the New Testament. His Gospel and Acts occupy almost a third of the New Testament, and together their narrative voice carries us over a span of more than sixty years, from the birth of Jesus to the imprisonment of Paul in Rome. It is difficult to imagine our understanding of the New Testament period without Luke’s writings. For this reason, the question of Luke’s historical reliability has been repeatedly investigated. In this study Howard Marshall affirms Luke’s trustworthiness as a historian. But Luke is more than a historian. He is also a theologian who finds his interpretive key in the great theme of salvation. Marshall provides us with a lucid guide to Luke’s theology of salvation as it is unfurled in Gospel narrative, but always with a eye on its ongoing development in the companion work, the Acts of the Apostles. A postscript assesses the course of Lukan studies during the decade of 1979-1988.

New Century Bible, St. Luke: Introduction,  Revised Version With Notes, Index and Maps (Classic Reprint)

Authorized version of Luke with extensive footnotes and commentary (1906)

https://amzn.to/3xCEGp9

Free on Internet Archive:

https://archive.org/details/stlukeintroducti42aden/page/n11/mode/2up

Passion Narrative St Luke: A Critical and Historical Investigation

https://amzn.to/3e9seG1

Taylor defends and develops the arguments in favour of a non-Markan basis for Luke which he first presented in 1926 in Behind the Third Gospel. He answers critics of that book by a detailed study of the Passion Narrative and concludes that St Luke used, in this part of his gospel at least, a special source, an authority which was as old as Mark but independent of it and which preserved accounts of the death and resurrection of Jesus given by the first Christians. The work has been edited and prepared for publication by a former pupil of Vincent Taylor’s, the Rev. Owen E. Evans. It should interest all specialists in NT studies as the last research of a distinguished scholar on a problem of continuing importance.

The Book of Acts in History

https://amzn.to/3taqr7z

With this book a foremost New Testament scholar makes a signal contribution to the literature about the times of the first apostles. This period, when the memory of Jesus was fresh yet no written literature about him existed, lends itself well to the descriptive treatment Dr. Cadbury employs. The purpose of these pages, he writes, is to establish not so much the accuracy of the book of Acts as the reality of the scenes and customs and mentality which it reflects…. We can walk where the Apostle Paul walked, see what he saw, and become increasingly at home in his world. Five chapters deal with each of the five cultural strands then existing: Roman, Greek, Jewish, Christian, and cosmopolitan. The sixth attempts to reconstruct the earliest history of the book of Acts.

The Authenticity of the Gospel of St. Luke: Its Bearing Upon the Evidences of the Truth of Christianity

https://amzn.to/2QHz3FL

Five Lectures by the bishop of Bath and Wells

” My purpose in the following Lectures is to lay before you certain facts and reasonings which seem to me to lead irresistibly to the conclusion that the Gospel record is true, and that we may without the slightest misgiving rest the whole weight of our hopes for eternity upon that record.”

Delivered at Bath in the Autumn of 1890

Initiation / Baptism of the Holy Spirit

Jesus and the Spirit: A Study of the Religious and Charismatic Experience of Jesus and the First Christians as Reflected in the New Testament

https://amzn.to/3e1rr9Y

In this fascinating book James D. G. Dunn explores the nature of the religious experiences that were at the forefront of emerging Christianity. Dunn first looks at the religious experience of Jesus, focusing especially on his experience of God in terms of his sense of sonship and his consciousness of the Spirit. He also considers the question of whether Jesus was a charismatic. Next Dunn examines the religious experiences of the earliest Christian communities, especially the resurrection appearances, Pentecost, and the signs and wonders recounted by Luke. Finally Dunn explores the religious experiences that make Paul so influential and that subsequently shaped Pauline Christianity and the religious life of his churches.

Baptism in the Holy Spirit

https://amzn.to/3e3Rz3P

This classic, now in paperback edition, introduces the reader to the most distinctive aspect of Pentecostal theology–baptism in the Holy Spirit. James Dunn sees water-baptism as only one element in the New Testament pattern of conversion and initiation. The gift of the Spirit, he believes, is the central element. For the writers of the New Testament only those who received the Spirit could be called Christians. For them, the reception of the Spirit was a very definite and often dramatic experience – the decisive and climatic experience in conversion-initiation – to which the Christian was usually recalled when reminded of the beginning of his Christian faith and experience. 

Christian Initiation and Baptism in the Holy Spirit: Second Revised Edition (Michael Glazier Books)

https://amzn.to/3gPOPsN

Up to now the teaching on baptism in the Holy Spirit has been based on a few scriptural texts, whose interpretation was disputed. This doubt cast its shadow on those who promote baptism in the Holy Spirit.

Now new evidence has been found in early post-biblical authors (Tertullian, Hilary of Poitiers, Cyril of Jerusalem, John Chrysostom, Philoxenus, and the Syrians) which demonstrates that what is called baptism in the Holy Spirit was integral to Christian initiation (baptism, confirmation, Eucharist). Because it was part of initiation into the Church, it was not a matter of private piety, but of public worship. Therefore it was and remains normative.

Christian Peoples of the Spirit: A Documentary History of Pentecostal Spirituality from the Early Church to the Present

https://amzn.to/3ujekqx

Among all groups in Christendom, the Pentecostal/Charismatic movement is second in size only to the Roman Catholic Church, with growth that shows no signs of abatement. Its adherents declare the Pentecostal Movement, which began at Azusa Street in 1906, to be unprecedented in Christian history since the first century of the Church in its embrace of manifestations of the Holy Spirit such as divine healing, miracles, and speaking in tongues. Yet although it may be unprecedented in size and rate of growth, Stanley M. Burgess argues that is hardly unprecedented in concept. In Christian Peoples of the Spirit, Burgess collects documentary evidence for two thousand years of individuals and groups who have evidenced Pentecostal/charismatic-like spiritual giftings, worship, and experience.

The Century of the Holy Spirit: 100 Years of Pentecostal and Charismatic Renewal, 1901-2001

https://amzn.to/3vzjTku

A definitive history of the Pentecostal and Charismatic movement and an intriguing reference for persons outside the movement, The Century of the Holy Spirit details the miraculous story of Pentecostal/Charismatic growth–in the U.S. and around the world. This book features five chapters by the premier Pentecostal historian, Vinson Synan, with additional contributions by leading Pentecostal/Charismatic authorities–David Barrett, David Daniels, David Edwin Harrell Jr., Peter Hocken, Sue Hyatt, Gary McGee, and Ted Olsen.

Theology

The Doctrine of the Trinity: Christianity’s Self-Inflicted Wound

https://amzn.to/3vBdnd1

The authors challenge the notion that biblical monotheism is legitimately represented by a Trinitarian view of God and demonstrate that within the bounds of the canon of Scripture Jesus is confessed as Messiah, Son of God, but not God Himself. Later Christological developments beginning in the second century misrepresented the biblical doctrine of God and Christ by altering the terms of the biblical presentation of the Father and Son. This fateful development laid the foundation of a revised, unscriptural creed that needs to be challenged. This book is likely to be a definitive presentation of a Christology rooted, as it originally was, in the Hebrew Bible. The authors present a sharply-argued appeal for an understanding of God and Jesus in the context of the original Christian documents.

Restoring the Biblical Christ: Is Jesus God?

https://amzn.to/2QCadar

This book presents a critical evaluation of the doctrine of the Trinity, tracing its development and investigating the intellectual, philosophical, and theological background that shaped this influential doctrine of Christianity. Despite the centrality of Trinitarian thought to Christianity, and its importance as one of the fundamental tenets that differentiates Christianity from Judaism and Islam, the doctrine is not fully formulated in the canon of Christian scriptural texts. Instead, it evolved through the conflation of selective pieces of scripture with the philosophical and religious ideas of ancient Hellenistic milieu. Marian Hillar analyzes the development of Trinitarian thought during the formative years of Christianity from its roots in ancient Greek philosophical concepts and religious thinking in the Mediterranean region. He identifies several important sources of Trinitarian thought heretofore largely ignored by scholars, including the Greek middle-Platonic philosophical writings of Numenius and Egyptian metaphysical writings and monuments representing divinity as a triune entity.

The Only True God: A Study of Biblical Monotheism

https://amzn.to/3eKXyd9

The faith of the Bible is not trinitarian but unyieldingly monotheistic. God’s message to humankind is a call to faith in Yahweh, the one and only God of Israel. Monotheism took root in the Law and the Prophets, and flourished in the hearts of God’s people. Jesus upheld Biblical monotheism when he prayed to his Father, “This is eternal life, that they may know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent.” In this study of Biblical monotheism and of trinitarianism’s claims to monotheism, we pay particular attention to the Biblical texts, principally John 1:1-18, which are typically used to underpin trinitarian doctrine. The book ends on a joyful note when it brings out the glorious blessings for God’s people in the truth that the Word became flesh in Jesus Christ and dwelled among us.

What is the Trinity?: Thinking about the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit 

https://amzn.to/332xUei

If you find the Trinity confusing, you are not alone! What does it mean to say God is “three Persons in one essence”? It might mean a number of things, and it has been understood in several ways by theologians. But how should it be understood, and how was it originally meant? This book shines light on the fog shrouding this subject, equipping you with basic information about the meaning and history of trinitarian ideas, so that you can see the various options and search the scriptures with fresh eyes.

The God of Jesus in Light of Christian Dogma

https://amzn.to/3tevPa8

At a very early stage in Church history, influences from the Greco-Roman world forcefully pressed the traditional God of Judaism through a system of pagan philosophy. The theological battles which followed produced serious problems for Christianity, and imperial edicts made accepting philosophical statements about God a matter of life or death. In The God of Jesus in Light of Christian Dogma, Chandler embarks on a dynamic investigation of the developmental history of orthodox theology and its impact on popular interpretations of the New Testament. Relayed in two parts, the first provides a panoramic view of Hellenic influence on the early Christian faith, while the second revisits biblical interpretation. Writing for both the dedicated Christian student and the interested public, Chandler boldly appeals to both ancient history and modern scholarship to inform us about the origins of our most sacred traditions, and challenges the reader to contrast those ideas with the words of Jesus.

One God & One Lord : Reconsidering the Cornerstone of the Christian Faith

https://amzn.to/3vxdG8L

Building an impressive and compelling case for the unity of the biblical testimony concerning the true humanity of Jesus, “the last Adam,” the authors reveal the profound significance of the two aspects of his coming: suffering and glory. They seek a view of Christ that allows for a total appreciation of his steadfast obedience to God in the face of temptation, suffering and even a humiliating death. Vindicated by his resurrection, he entered into glory and now sits in a position of functional equality with God, analogous to the relationship of Joseph and Pharaoh in the Book of Genesis. Because the Gospel of John is often isolated and magnified to establish and fortify orthodox Christology, the authors explore in depth the unique depiction of Christ in “the Fourth Gospel”. They succeed in placing John’s testimony harmoniously and understandably within the margins of the prophetic portrait of the Messiah. 

God and Jesus; Exploring the Biblical Distinction

https://amzn.to/3hXk7P3

Written by a former oneness believer (modalist), Joel W. Hemphill, to illustrate the 760 NT passages that make the distinction between God and Jesus. These passages are written in the order as they appear in Holy Scripture. After 50 years as a Oneness Pentecostal minister, Joel Hemphill came to the understanding that not only is the Doctrine of the Trinity not scriptural, but that modern-day Oneness doctrine is lacking as well. While Brother Hemphill still holds to the Jesus Name – Apostolic message, he has come to the realization that the Jesus Name Apostolics in the Book of Acts were not proclaiming the post-biblical Oneness view of God.

Articles regarding oneness doctrine (modalism) from former oneness believers: https://www.21stcr.org/subjects/oneness-pentecostalism/oneness-pentecostalism-articles/

From Logos to Trinity: The Evolution of Religious Beliefs from Pythagoras to Tertullian

https://amzn.to/3e7eQ5d

This book presents a critical evaluation of the doctrine of the Trinity, tracing its development and investigating the intellectual, philosophical, and theological background that shaped this influential doctrine of Christianity. Despite the centrality of Trinitarian thought to Christianity, and its importance as one of the fundamental tenets that differentiates Christianity from Judaism and Islam, the doctrine is not fully formulated in the canon of Christian scriptural texts. Instead, it evolved through the conflation of selective pieces of scripture with the philosophical and religious ideas of ancient Hellenistic milieu. Marian Hillar analyzes the development of Trinitarian thought during the formative years of Christianity from its roots in ancient Greek philosophical concepts and religious thinking in the Mediterranean region. He identifies several important sources of Trinitarian thought heretofore largely ignored by scholars, including the Greek middle-Platonic philosophical writings of Numenius and Egyptian metaphysical writings and monuments representing divinity as a triune entity.

The Unitarians: A Short History

https://amzn.to/3t6u4LV

This short history of Unitarianism concisely explores the origins and progress of a worldwide liberal religious tradition committed to principles of freedom, reason, and tolerance.Unitarians have exercised an influence out of proportion to their minority status. Through their agency, Poland and Transylvania enjoyed periods of religious toleration. In Great Britain, as pioneers of early modern higher education in Dissenting Academies, they applied Enlightenment reasoning to the study of religion, science, and the humanities. In the United States, they led the Transcendentalist movement, the first major flowering of American intellectual culture. This book traces the history of the separate but related Unitarian (and Unitarian Universalist) denominations in Europe, Great Britain, and the United States, and touches on the new groups that have arisen, or are in the process of emerging, elsewhere in the world.

Islam

In the Shadow of the Sword: The Birth of Islam and the Rise of the Global Arab Empire

https://amzn.to/2PDFHfL

The evolution of the Arab empire is one of the supreme narratives of ancient history, a story dazzlingly rich in drama, character, and achievement. In this exciting and sweeping history—the third in his trilogy of books on the ancient world—Holland describes how the Arabs emerged to carve out a stupefyingly vast dominion in a matter of decades, overcoming seemingly insuperable odds to create an imperial civilization aspects of which endure to the present day. With profound bearing on the most consequential events of our time, Holland ties the exciting story of Islam’s ascent to the crises and controversies of the present.

The Qur’an and the Bible: Text and Commentary

https://amzn.to/3u9Hs3k

Noted religious scholar Gabriel Said Reynolds draws on centuries of Qur’ānic and Biblical studies to offer rigorous and revelatory commentary on how these holy books are intrinsically connected. Reynolds demonstrates how Jewish and Christian characters, imagery, and literary devices feature prominently in the Qur’ān, including stories of angels bowing before Adam and of Jesus speaking as an infant. This important contribution to religious studies features a full translation of the Qur’ān along with excerpts from the Jewish and Christian texts. It offers a clear analysis of the debates within the communities of religious scholars concerning the relationship of these scriptures, providing a new lens through which to view the powerful links that bond these three major religions.

Quranic Studies: Sources and Methods of Scriptural Interpretation

https://amzn.to/3bayImb

One of the most innovative thinkers in the field of Islamic Studies was John Wansbrough (1928-2002), Professor of Semitic Studies and Pro-Director of London University’s School of Oriental and African Studies. Critiquing the traditional accounts of the origins of Islam as historically unreliable and heavily influenced by religious dogma, Wansbrough suggested radically new interpretations very different from the views of both the Muslim orthodoxy and most Western scholars.Originally published in 1977, Quranic Studies presents an in-depth textual exegesis of the Quran based on form analysis. Noting the persistent use of monotheistic imagery stemming from Judeo-Christian sources, he interpreted the rise of Islam as the development of what was originally a Judeo-Christian sect. As this sect evolved and differentiated itself from its Judeo-Christian roots, the Quran also evolved and was continuously in flux for over a century. Wansbrough concluded that the canonization of the text that we today call the Quran, and even the emergence of the concept of “Islam,” probably did not occur till the end of the eighth century, more than 150 years after the death of Muhammad.

Muslims: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices (The Library of Religious Beliefs and Practices)

https://amzn.to/3eKlXzt

Muslims: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices offers a survey of Islamic history and thought from the formative period of the religion to the contemporary period. It examines the unique elements which have combined to form Islam, in particular, the Qurʾān and perceptions of the Prophet Muḥammad, and traces the ways in which these ideas have interacted to influence Islam’s path to the present. Combining core source materials with coverage of current scholarship and of recent events in the Islamic world, Bernheimer and Rippin introduce this hugely significant religion, including alternative visions of Islam found in Shi’ism and Sufism, in a succinct, challenging, and refreshing way. The improved and expanded fifth edition is updated throughout and includes new textboxes.

The First Dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate AD 661-750

https://amzn.to/3nzY0yM

Gerald Hawting’s book has long been acknowledged as the standard introductory survey of this complex period in Arab and Islamic history. Now it is once more made available, with the addition of a new introduction by the author which examines recent significant contributions to scholarship in the field. It is certain to be welcomed by students and academics alike.

Seeing Islam as Others Saw It: A Survey and Evaluation of Christian, Jewish and Zoroastrian Writings on Early Islam

https://amzn.to/3eEj82Y

This book offers a new approach to the vexing question of how to write the early history of Islam. The first part discusses the nature of the Muslim and non-Muslim source material for the seventh- and eighth-century Middle East and argues that by lessening the divide between these two traditions, which has largely been erected by modern scholarship, we can come to a better appreciation of this crucial period. The second part gives a detailed survey of sources and an analysis of some 120 non-Muslim texts, all of which provide information about the first century and a half of Islam (roughly A.D. 620-780). The third part furnishes examples, according to the approach suggested in the first part and with the material presented in the second part, how one might write the history of this time. The fourth part takes the form of excurses on various topics, such as the process of Islamization, the phenomenon of conversion to Islam, the development of techniques for determining the direction of prayer, and the conquest of Egypt.

Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam

https://amzn.to/3uccAz5

Patricia Crone reassesses one of the most widely accepted dogmas in contemporary accounts of the beginnings of Islam, the supposition that Mecca was a trading center thriving on the export of aromatic spices to the Mediterranean. Pointing out that the conventional opinion is based on classical accounts of the trade between south Arabia and the Mediterranean some 600 years earlier than the age of Muhammad, Dr. Crone argues that the land route described in these records was short-lived and that the Muslim sources make no mention of such goods. In addition to changing our view of the role of trade, the author reexamines the evidence for the religious status of pre-Islamic Mecca and seeks to elucidate the nature of the sources on which we should reconstruct our picture of the birth of the new religion in Arabia. Patricia Crone is professor of Islamic history at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton.

Crossroads to Islam: The Origins of the Arab Religion and the Arab State (Islamic Studies)

https://amzn.to/3vyCPA1

Archaeologist Yehuda D. Nevo and researcher Judith Koren present a revolutionary theory of the origins and development of the Islamic state and religion. Whereas most works on this subject derive their view of the history of this period from the Muslim literature, Crossroads to Islam also examines important types of evidence hitherto neglected: the literature of the local (Christian) population, archaeological excavations, numismatics, and especially rock inscriptions. These analyses lay the foundation for a radical view of the development of Islam.According to Nevo and Koren, the evidence suggests that the Arabs were in fact pagan when they assumed power in the regions formerly ruled by the Byzantine Empire. They contend that the Arabs took control almost without a struggle, because Byzantium had effectively withdrawn from the area long before. After establishing control, the new Arab elite adopted a simple monotheism influenced by Judaeo-Christianity, which they encountered in their newly acquired territories, and gradually developed it into the Arab religion. Not until the mid-8th century was this process completed. This interpretation of the evidence corroborates the view of other scholars, who on different grounds propose that Islam and the canonized version of the Koran were preceded by a long period of development.